Learning: Principles and Applications provides students a current, comprehensive, and engaging introduction to the psychology of learning. Praised for its easy-to-read style and presentation of important contributions of both human and nonhuman animal research, the text helps readers understand the process of learning with coverage of classic experiments, contemporary research, real-world examples, applications, chapter-opening vignettes, and critical thinking questions. The Eighth Edition features expanded sections on theories of conditioning, a streamlined organization through two separate chapters on memory storage and retrieval, and enhanced pedagogy to better connect the material to the everyday lives of students.

Cognitive Control of Behavior

Cognitive Control of Behavior

Learning Objectives

  • Explain how place cells and grid cells represent Tolman’s cognitive map, which acts to guide goal-seeking behavior.
  • Distinguish between an associative-link expectancy and a behavior reinforcement belief.
  • Discuss when a habit rather than an expectancy controls behavior.
  • Describe the difference between expectancy and attributional theories of learned helplessness.
  • Distinguish between helplessness and hopelessness models of depression.
  • Recall the biological changes that accompany learned helplessness.
  • Explain how outcome and efficacy expectancies affect phobic behavior.
  • Describe associative and cognitive explanations of concept learning.

The Insurmountable Barrier

Math has always been an obstacle for Martha. Even in elementary school, her distaste for arithmetic was evident. She dreaded working with numbers, and her lowest grades were always in math. Martha’s high ...

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