Learning: Principles and Applications provides students a current, comprehensive, and engaging introduction to the psychology of learning. Praised for its easy-to-read style and presentation of important contributions of both human and nonhuman animal research, the text helps readers understand the process of learning with coverage of classic experiments, contemporary research, real-world examples, applications, chapter-opening vignettes, and critical thinking questions. The Eighth Edition features expanded sections on theories of conditioning, a streamlined organization through two separate chapters on memory storage and retrieval, and enhanced pedagogy to better connect the material to the everyday lives of students.

Theories of Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning

Theories of Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning

Learning Objectives

  • Relate probability-differential theory to Devon doing his schoolwork and playing the video game BioShock.
  • Explain how Devon’s schoolwork–video game contingency affects the frequency of Devon playing the video game BioShock.
  • Distinguish between probability-reinforcement theory and response deprivation theory of reinforcement.
  • Explain how Herrnstein’s matching law can explain play selection in college football.
  • Recall how two-factor theory can explain Edmund’s alcohol consumption.
  • Describe several theories about why punishment suppresses behavior.

A Lack of Self-Control

Devon had just finished hearing Dr. Harkin lecturing to the class about operant conditioning. Impressed by the powerful influence of reinforcement on behavior, Devon asked Dr. Harkin whether operant conditioning could help him do his schoolwork. Devon told Dr. Harkin ...

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