Leading for Equality: Making Schools Fairer
Publication Year: 2016
The authors provide an overview of what it means to manage for equality in schools. Whether at senior management or classroom level, issues such as equality of opportunity and outcomes are central to education policy and practice in the UK. The authors explain and disentangle terms like equality, equity, diversity and social justice. This book will be an accessible guide to current thinking on equality, and how this looks in schools. They will reference European and international literature.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Context and in/Equality
- Chapter 1: Ideas of Equality: The Contested Concept
- Chapter 2: The Policy Landscape
- Chapter 3: Responding to Single or Multiple Characteristics: Intersectionality Challenges
- Chapter 4: The Inequality Landscape: Some Differences Matter more than others
- Chapter 5: Approaches to Attacking Inequality
Part II: Addressing in/Equality
- Chapter 6: Socioeconomic Class and Equality
- Chapter 7: Gender and Equality
- Chapter 8: Sexuality and Equality
- Chapter 9: Ethnicity and Equality
- Chapter 10: Religion and Equality
- Chapter 11: Migrant Children and Equality
- Chapter 12: Special Learning Needs, Disability and Equality
Part III: Drawing together Threads for Action
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Jacky Lumby and Marianne Coleman 2016
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016935137
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4739-1629-6 (pbk)
Editor: Marianne Lagrange
Editorial assistant: Robert Patterson
Production editor: Tom Bedford
Copyeditor: Gemma Marren
Proofreader: Audrey Scriven
Marketing manager: Dilhara Attygalle
Cover design: Naomi Robinson
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
About the Authors
Education can be a force for greater equality in our communities, enabling everyone to achieve more of their potential to the benefit of both individuals and society. However, it is easy to lose sight of this over-arching purpose in the day-to-day routine of classrooms, assessments and results. Leaders in schools would say that they aspire to enable the highest possible levels of achievement for all and that they aim to treat individuals fairly, but more than two decades of researching equality in schools has shown us that, for many learners, this is far from reality. In particular, those who differ from an assumed norm are the most likely to be overlooked and marginalized, to the detriment of their education.
The two of us have written previously on leadership and diversity in education when we engaged with theories and concepts to support practice (Lumby with Coleman, 2007). In this book we wanted a different focus: to look not just at what the concepts mean in the context of education, but also at how to put them into action. We have engaged with real schools, illustrating our discussions with instances of how they are working to make life fairer for students and staff. In each chapter, therefore, are examples of ways in which you might tackle some of the practical issues to make your school fairer.
The book is entitled Leading for Equality: Making Schools Fairer and is aimed at all who are in leadership roles. Our definition of leadership is broad, going beyond the head teacher/principal and the senior leadership team to encompass the department and subject head, the leadership of the teacher in the classroom, those leading in support roles, and touching on the potential leadership of learners. We chose to use the word ‘equality’ as shorthand for many related ideas: equity, inclusion, diversity and social justice. We feel that these moral concepts are of vital relevance today, as our societies become more diverse and communities struggle to unite in the face of many destabilizing challenges.
Over time, people are becoming more aware and respectful of the differences between individuals and groups, often with the benefit of legislation to protect individual rights. Despite such advances, lingering prejudices remain and there is still a tendency to regard the norm as White, middle-class, [Page viii]male, heterosexual and probably Christian, with all individuals and groups judged against this baseline. There is also a tendency to stereotype individuals on the basis of the group or groups to which they belong. In this book, we ask you to examine your individual stance and that taken by your school to probe the part you play in dismantling or strengthening inequality.
The fundamental point is to bring about change in schools, to make them fairer. This can only be achieved through you, the reader – your values, your aims, your actions. We hope that this book supports you and wish you well in your endeavours.
A book such as this is only possible with the help of many people. The varied illustrations of policy and practice that we have been able to include are the result of support from staff in schools in England, Scotland and Wales and other educators who generously shared their experience with us. Of necessity, they must remain anonymous, nevertheless we should like to express our gratitude at their openness and willingness to share. They were driven in all cases by a wish to contribute to the mission of increasing equality in our schools. We thank them all.
We would also like to thank Marianne Lagrange, Robert Patterson and Rachael Plant at Sage, for their support of this publication and ongoing ideas for its development. Alison Williamson undertook initial copyediting and proofing, and provided useful feedback.
Finally, we would like to thank the very many children and young people to whom we have spoken throughout twenty years of researching schools. Their stories and opinions have provided a constant reminder of the human experience at the heart of schooling, and have motivated us to continue researching and writing about equality.[Page x]
References[Page 187]2015) ‘It's not just about value for money: a case study of values-led implementation of the Pupil Premium in outstanding schools’, Management in Education, 0892020615593789., and (2011) ‘Islamic schools flourish to meet demand’, The Guardian, 28 November. www.theguardian.com/education/2011/nov/28/muslim-schools-growth (accessed 15.12.2015).(2012) ‘Why does the ethnic and socioeconomic composition of schools influence math achievement? The role of sense of futility and futility culture’, European Sociological Review, 28 (3): 366–78., and (2005) ‘Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change?’, Journal of Educational Change, 6 (2): 109–24.(2012) ‘Making schools effective for all: rethinking the task’, School Leadership & Management: Formerly School Organisation, 32 (3): 197–213., , and (2011) ‘Why do faith secondary schools have advantaged intakes? The relative importance of neighbourhood characteristics, social background and religious identification amongst parents’, British Educational Research Journal, 37 (4): 691–712.and (2015) Who Counts as a Migrant? Definitions and Their Consequences. Oxford: University of Oxford. www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/sites/files/migobs/Briefing%20-%20Who%20Counts%20as%20a%20Migrant.pdf (accessed 17.11.2015).and (2012) ‘Engaging diversity in teaching religion and theology: an intercultural, de-colonial epistemic perspective’, Teaching Theology and Religion, 15 (1): 3–15.(2008) ‘”Doesn't my experience count?” White students, the authority of experience and social justice pedagogy’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 11 (4): 405–14.(2007) Understanding Minority Ethnic Achievement. Abingdon: Routledge.and (Association of Muslim Schools (AMS) (2015) http://ams-uk.org/faq/ (accessed 03.02.2015).2009) ‘Well-being, happiness and education’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 30 (6): 795–802.(2003) Class Strategies and the Education Market: The Middle Classes and Social Advantage. London: Routledge.(2006) Education Policy and Social Class: The Selected Works of Stephen J. Ball. Abingdon: Routledge.([Page 188] and (2008) Hidden Privatisation in Public Education. Brussels: Education International.2010) Number and Growth of Children in US Schools in Need of English Instruction. ELL Fact Series. www.migrationpolicy.org/research/number-and-growth-students-us-schools-need-english-instruction (accessed 18.02.2015).and (2009) ‘Making “right” choices? An ethnographic account of creativity, performativity and personalised learning policy, concepts and practices’, Oxford Review of Education, 35 (6): 689–704.and (2010) Effective Intervention in Primary School: Nurture Groups,and (2ndedn. Abingdon: Routledge.2012) ‘Islam, education and inclusion: towards a social justice agenda?’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 33 (5): 783–90.(2009) ‘Leadership for social justice: a transnational dialogue’, Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 4 (1): 1–10.(2004) ‘The dark side of school leadership: implications for administrator preparation’, Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3 (4): 245–73.and (2007) ‘White flight: integration through segregation in Danish metropolitan public schools’, Humanity in Action, Team Denmark.and (2007) ‘The impact of school choice on pupil achievement, segregation and costs: Swedish evidence’, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2786. www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/34645/1/555455319.pdf (accessed 27.11.2015).and (2014) ‘Identity, performance and race: the use of critical race theory in understanding institutional racism and discrimination in schools’, in and (eds), Advancing Race and Ethnicity in Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 17–31.(2014) ‘Short sprint or an endurance test: the perceived impact of the National Award for Special Educational Needs Coordination’, Teacher Development, 18 (4): 495–510.and (2015) ‘French court rules school lunches may include pork; Muslims alarmed’, Religious News Service. www.religionnews.com/2015/08/13/french-court-rules-school-lunches-may-include-pork-muslims-alarmed/ (accessed 27.10.2015).(2006) ‘Black and Minority Ethnic leaders in England: a portrait’, School Leadership and Management, 26 (3): 289–305., and (2003) ‘Differential teacher effectiveness: towards a model for research and teacher appraisal’, Oxford Review of Education, 29 (3): 347–62., , and (2009) ‘Investing in diversity: changing the face (and heart) of educational leadership’, School Leadership and Management, 29 (3): 321–31.(2007) ‘From the field: a proposal for educating leaders for social justice’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 44: 111., , , , and (2008) ‘Role models, school improvement and the ‘gender gap’: do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls?’, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (3): 315–27., and ([Page 189] , , and (2015) ‘The impact of transformative learning in a critical service-learning program on teacher development: building a foundation for inclusive teaching’, Reflective Practice, 16 (1): 61–72.Children's Society (2015) The Good Childhood Report 2015. www.childrenssociety.org.uk/sites/default/files/TheGoodChildhoodReport2015.pdf (accessed 15.11.2015).2007) Vocational Education: International Approaches, Developments and Systems. London: Routledge.and (eds) (2014) Report into Allegations Concerning Birmingham Schools Arising from the ‘Trojan Horse’ Letter. London: Department for Education.(2007) ‘Gender and educational leadership in England: a comparison of secondary head teachers’ views over time’, School Leadership and Management, 2 (4): 383–99.(Commission for Developing Scotland's Young Workforce (2014) Education Working for All! Final Report. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.‘Compulsory Christian school assembly should be scrapped’ (2015) ‘Compulsory Christian school assembly should be scrapped – Church of England education chief’, Telegraph, 9 December. www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10951894/Compulsory-Christian-school-assembly-should-be-scrapped-Church-of-England-education-chief.html (accessed 09.12.2015).2013) ‘Adult psychiatric outcomes of bullying and being bullied by peers in childhood and adolescence’, JAMA Psychiatry, 70 (4): 419–26., , and (2005) Supporting Black Pupils and Parents: Understanding and Improving Home–School Relations. London: Routledge.(2015) ‘Primary school pupil numbers soaring’, BBC News, 11 June. www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-33094304 (accessed 27.11.2015).(Council on Foreign Relations (2015) Europe's Migration Crisis. www.cfr.org/migration/europes-migration-crisis/p32874 (accessed 27.11.2015).2010) Methodological Advances in Educational Effectiveness Research. London: Routledge., and (1989) ‘Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: a Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory, and antiracist politics’, University of Chicago Legal Forum, 1 (8): 139–67.(2001) ‘School differences and social segregation: comparison between England, Wales and Scotland’, Education Review, 15 (1): 68–73.(2014) ‘Foreword’, in and , Advancing Race and Ethnicity in Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. viii–xiii.(2015) Youth Unemployment Statistics 17 June 2015. London: Houses of Parliament. http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN05871 (accessed 14.06.2015).(2014) ‘Educational inclusion: meeting the needs of all Traveller pupils’, in and (eds), Advancing Race and Ethnicity in Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 47–62.(2014) ‘Cumulative disadvantage? Educational careers of migrant students in Irish secondary schools’, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 17 (1): 129–51., and ([Page 190] (2009) ‘Christian, but not as we know it’, The Guardian, 1 June. www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2009/jun/01/europe-christianity-religion (accessed 04.05.2016).DCSF (2007) Homophobic Bullying: Safe to Learn – Embedding Anti-Bullying Work in Schools. Nottingham: DCSF.DCSF (2009) Gender and Education: Mythbusters. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/00599-2009BKT-EN.pdf (accessed 15.08.2015).2009) Gender Differences in Educational Outcomes: Study on the Measures Taken and the Current Situation in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice.(2005) ‘Segregation by choice? A study of group-specific reasons for school choice’, Journal of Education Policy, 20 (3): 347–68., and (2009) ‘“No outsiders”: moving beyond a discourse of tolerance to challenge heteronormativity in primary schools’, British Educational Research Journal, 35 (6): 837–55.and (2013) ‘“Value”ing children differently? Migrant children in education’, Children & Society, 27 (4): 282–94.(DfE (2012) A Profile of Pupil Exclusions in England. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/183498/DFE-RR190.pdf (accessed 11.10.2015).DfE (2013) Statistical First Release: Schools Pupils and Their Characteristics, January. www.gov.uk/government/statistics/schools-pupils-and-their-characteristics-january-2013 (accessed 04.05.2016).DfE (2014) Statistical Release: Children with Special Educational Needs 2014: An Analysis. www.gov.uk/government/collections/statistics-special-educationalneeds-sen (accessed 11.10.2015).DfE (2015a) Statistical First Release, Pupil Absence in Schools in England: Autumn Term 2014. London, DfE. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/428578/SFR12_2015_Text.pdf (accessed 05.01.2016).DfE (2015b) Statistical first release. NEET Quarterly Brief – April to June 2015. London: DfE. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/454401/Quarterly_Brief_NEET_Q2_2015.pdf (accessed 07.09.2015).DfE (2015c) Statistical First Release: Schools Pupils and their Characteristics, January. www.gov.uk/government/statistics/schools-pupils-and-their-characteristics-january-2015 (accessed 11.10.2015).DfE (2015d) Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice: 0 to 25 Years. London: DfE.DfES (2005) Higher Standards, Better Schools for All (White Paper). London: HMSO.2015) REforREal Report: The Future of Teaching and Learning About Religion and Belief. London: Culham St Gabriel's/Goldsmiths. www.gold.ac.uk/media/goldsmiths/169-images/departments/research-units/faiths-unit/REforREal-web-b.pdf (accessed 04.05.2016).and (1903/1968) The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Johnson Reprint Company.(EHRC (2011) Sex and Power 2011. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.[Page 191] with (2004) ‘Something more to tell you: gay, lesbian or bisexual young people's experiences of secondary schooling’, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (2): 213–25.2009) ‘It's Not Just About Black and White, Miss’: Children's Awareness of Race. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.(Estyn (2013) Supplementary Guidance: Additional Learning Needs. Cardiff: Estyn.European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2009) Multicultural Diversity and Special Needs Education. Denmark: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education.European Commission (2014) Overview of Europe 2020 Targets. Brussels: European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/targets_en.pdf (accessed 27.04.2016).European Migration Network (2011) Annual Report on Migration and International Protection Statistics 2008. Helsinki: EMN. http://emn.ie/files/p_201111110337142011_Synthesis_AR_Statistics2008_FINAL_October_2011.pdf (accessed 05.06.2016).European Union (2015a) Poverty and social exclusion. http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=751 (accessed 14.06.2015).European Union (2015b) Declaration on Promoting Citizenship and the Common Values of Freedom, Tolerance and Non-discrimination through Education. http://ec.europa.eu/education/news/2015/documents/citizenship-education-declaration_en.pdf (accessed 04.05.2016).European Union (2015c) 2015 Joint Report of the Council and the Commission on the Implementation of the Strategic Framework for European Cooperation in Education and Training. Brussels: EU.Eurostat (2015) Employment Statistics May. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Unemployment_statistics (accessed 14.06.2015).2014) The Introduction of Academy Schools to England's Education (mimeo). London: Centre for Economic Performance.and (Fair Education Alliance (2014) ‘Will we ever have a fair education for all? The Fair Education Alliance Report Card 2014’. http://static1.squarespace.com/static/543e665de4b0fbb2b140b291/t/5481a731e4b0d2f5ad3b39fb/1417783096688/FEA+Report+Card+2014.pdf (accessed 28.08.2015).2014) Report on Discrimination of Roma Children in Education. Brussels: EU. http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/files/roma_childdiscrimination_en.pdf (accessed 12.11.2015).(Fawcett Society (2015) The Gender Pay Gap. www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/our-work/campaigns/gender-pay-gap/ (accessed 17.10.2015).2010) ‘“I was the special ed. girl”: urban working-class young women of colour’, Gender and Education, 22 (1): 105–21.and (2007) No More Failures: Ten Steps to Equity in Education. Summary and policy recommendations. Paris: OECD. www.oxydiane.net/IMG/pdf/No_More_Failure.pdf (accessed 05.05.2016)., and (2005) Education Policy and Social Reproduction: Class Inscription and Symbolic Control. London: Routledge., and (2011) ‘The dialogic sociology of education’, International Studies in Sociology of Education, 21 (1): 7–20.([Page 192] (2007) ‘Faith schools, multiculturalism and community cohesion: Muslim and Roman Catholic state schools in England and Scotland’, Policy & Politics, 35 (2): 251–68.2008) ‘The challenges of intersectionality: researching difference in physical education’, International Studies in Sociology of Education, 18 (2): 73–85. http://eprints.leedsbeckett.ac.uk/363/1/Flintoffetal2008IntStudiesinSocEducation.pdf (accessed 12.08.2015)., and (2010) ‘Preparing teachers for inclusive education: using inclusive pedagogy to enhance teaching and learning for all’, Cambridge Journal of Education, 40 (4): 369–86.and (2010) ‘Teachers’ professional learning and inclusive practice’, in (ed.), Confronting Obstacles to Inclusion. London: Routledge, pp. 185–200.and (2008) ‘The influence of the school in the decision to participate in learning post-16’, British Educational Research Journal, 34 (1): 37–61., and (2003) Leading and Managing Education: International Dimensions. London: Paul Chapman.and (2006) ‘The nature of gender’, in , and (eds), The Sage Handbook of Gender and Education. London: Sage, pp. 7–17.(2010) ‘The simultaneous production of educational achievement and popularity: how do some pupils accomplish it?’ British Educational Research Journal, 36 (2): 317–40., and (2015) ‘Christian affiliation, Christian practice, and attitudes to religious diversity: a quantitative analysis among 13- to 15-year-old female students in the UK’, Journal of Contemporary Religion, 30 (2): 249–63., and (1997) Justice Interruptus: Critical Reflections on the ‘Postsocialist’ Condition. New York: Routledge.(2009) Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity. Maidenhead: Open University Press.and (2013) Gender, Identity and Educational Leadership. London: Bloomsbury.(2012) ‘Social justice leadership as praxis: developing capacities through preparation programs’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 48 (2): 191–229. http://eaq.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/01/03/0013161X11427394(2005) ‘How can educational leaders promote and support social justice and democratic community in schools?’, in and (eds), A New Agenda for Research in Educational Leadership. New York: Teachers College Press, pp. 119–37.and (2015) Inclusion: Statements of Intent. London: NUT.and (2001) ‘American schooling and educational inequality: a forecast for the 21st century’, Sociology of Education (Extra Issue): 135–53.(2010) ‘Tracking and inequality’, in , and (eds), The Routledge Handbook of the Sociology of Education. London: Routledge, pp. 213–28.([Page 193] and (2002) ‘Plural conceptions of social justice: implications for policy sociology’, Journal of Education Policy, 17 (5): 499–509.2008) ‘Choice, competition, and pupil achievement’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 6 (4): 912–47., and (2010) ‘The white working class, racism and respectability: victims, degenerates and interest-convergence’, British Journal of Educational Studies, 58 (1): 3–25.(1999) ‘Managing ambiguity: between markets and managerialism – a case study of “middle” managers in further education’, The Sociological Review, 47 (3): 461–90.and (2012) ‘Experiencing fairness at school: an international study’, International Journal of Educational Research, 53: 127–37.(2008) National Report on the 14–19 Reform Programme: Baseline of Evidence 2007–2008. Birmingham: University of Birmingham., , , , , , , and with , and (Gov.uk (2015) www.gov.uk/children-with-special-educational-needs/overview (accessed 10.04.2015).2011) Intercultural and Multicultural Education. Abingdon: Routledge.and (eds) (2015) ‘Inclusive leadership and gender’, in and (eds), Leadership for Increasingly Diverse Schools. New York: Routledge, pp. 119–41.and (Groundhog Day (1993) Motion picture, dir. . Sony Pictures.GTCS (2012) Standards for Leadership and Management in Scotland. Edinburgh: General Teaching Council for Scotland.2014) The Teachers’ Report: Homophobic Bullying in Britain's Schools in 2014. Stonewall. www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/teachers_report_2014.pdf (accessed 04.05.2016)., and (2002) ‘Does it make a difference? Evaluating professional development’, Educational Leadership, 59 (6): 45–51. www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar02/vol59/num06/Does-It-Make-a-Difference%C2%A2-Evaluating-Professional-Development.aspx (accessed 19.04.2015).(2009) ‘New regimes of truth: the impact of performative school self-evaluation systems on teachers’ professional identities’, Teaching and Teacher Education, 25 (6): 850–6.and (2003) ‘Secondary school teachers’ attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73 (3): 343–56.and (2004) ‘Primary pupils’ experiences of different types of grouping in school’, British Educational Research Journal, 30 (4): 515–33., and (2013) ‘Prevalence of streaming in UK primary schools: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study’, British Educational Research Journal, 39 (3): 514–44.and (2002) ‘Equality, fairness and rights: the young person's voice’, British Journal of Special Education, 29 (3): 111–17.and ([Page 194] (2006) ‘Does educational tracking affect performance and inequality? Differences-in-differences evidence across countries’, The Economic Journal, 116 (510): C63–C76.2010) Teacher Expertise for Special Educational Needs: Filling in the Gaps. London: Policy Exchange. www.policyexchange.org.uk/images/publications/teacher%20expertise%20for%20sen%20-%20jul%2010.pdf (accessed 11.10.2015).(2004) ‘Psychological resilience in disadvantaged youth: a critical overview’, Australian Psychologist, 39 (1): 3–13.and (2006) ‘Social class and schooling: differentiation or democracy?’, in (ed.), Education, Equality and Human Rights: Issues of Gender, Race, Sexuality, Disability and Social Class. London: Routledge, pp. 202–24(2007) Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment in Germany: The Last Five Decades, Discussion papers, No. 738. Berlin: German Institute for Economic Research. www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/74360/dp738.pdf (accessed 27.04.2016)and (2001) Policy Approaches to Educational Disadvantage and Equity in Australian Schooling. Paris: UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.(1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2002) ‘Potential cultural resistance to pedagogical imports: the case of communicative language teaching in China’, Language Culture and Curriculum, 15 (2): 93–105.(2011) ‘Are separate schools divisive? A case study from Northern Ireland’, British Educational Research Journal, 37 (5): 829–50.(2009) ‘Youth, risk and equity in a global world’, Review of Research in Education, 33: 117–59., and (2007) The School Report: The Experiences of Young Gay People in Britain's Schools. London: Stonewall.and (2005) Where Are the Gaps? An Analysis of UK Skills and Education Strategy in the Light of the Kok Group and European Commission Midterm Review of the Lisbon Goals. London: Work Foundation/DfES.(2008) ‘Diagnosing student learning problems based on historical assessment records’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45 (1): 77–89., and (2002) ‘On the upgrading of vocational studies: analysing prejudice and subordination in English education’, Educational Review, 54 (3): 287–96.(2008) ‘Mapping gender and social background differences in education and youth transitions across Europe’, Journal of Youth Studies, 11 (2): 213–32.and (2006) Lads and Ladettes in School: Gender and a Fear of Failure. Maidenhead: Open University Press.(2002) ‘Performativity and primary teacher relations’, Journal of Education Policy, 17 (5): 531–46. http://oro.open.ac.uk/20324/1/Performativity_and_Teacher_Relations.pdf (accessed 20.07.2015).([Page 195] (1993) Culture: Key Ideas. London: Routledge.2004) Stand Up for Us: Challenging Homophobia in Schools. Health Development Agency. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130401151715/http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/SUFU%20Final.pdf (accessed 23.01.2016).(2009) Teaching with Poverty in Mind: What Being Poor Does to Kids’ Brains and What Schools Can Do About It. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.(2015) ‘Child poverty in the EU’, Brussels, European Parliamentary Research Service. http://epthinktank.eu/2015/06/09/child-poverty-in-the-eu/ (accessed 20.07.2015).(2003) School Choice and Ethnic School Segregation: Primary School Selection in Germany. Munster: Waxmann Verlag.(1992) Staff Development for ABE and ESL Teachers and Volunteers. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse. www.ericdigests.org/1993/abe.htm (accessed 05.05.2016).(2006) ‘From the achievement gap to the education debt: understanding achievement in US schools’, Educational Researcher, 35 (7): 3–12.(2011) ‘What works? An empirical assessment of strengths, weaknesses and next steps for the academies initiative’, Education Policy and the State: The Academies Programme. London: Continuum, pp. 105–19., and (2003) ‘School leadership for intercultural education’, Intercultural Education, 14 (1): 31–45.(2012) ‘School context and the gender gap in educational achievement’, American Sociological Review, 77 (3): 463–85.and (2007) ‘Single sex schools’, in , , and , Genderwatch: Still Watching … Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books, pp. 141–3.and (2012) ‘Where are the disabled teachers?’, The Guardian, 12 November.(2003) Approaches to Equity in Policy for Lifelong Learning. Paris: OECD. www.oxydiane.net/IMG/pdf/OECD_Eq_backgr.pdf (accessed 27.04.2016).(2013) Ethnic Minority Pupils: Evidence, Review and Practice in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Government.and (2012) ‘Theorizing educational change within the context of inclusion’, in and (eds), Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, Debates and New Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 33–44.and (2001) ‘Redefining parental involvement: lessons from high-performing migrant-impacted schools’, American Educational Research Journal, 38 (2): 253–88., and (2013) ‘Children at risk of poverty or social exclusion’, Eurostat. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Children_at_risk_of_poverty_or_social_exclusion (accessed 14.06.2015).(2010) ‘A shadow of ourselves: identity erasure and the politics of queer leadership’, School Leadership and Management, 30 (1): 77–91.and ([Page 196] (2007) ‘14 to 16 year olds in further education colleges: lessons for learning and leadership’, Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 59 (1): 1–18.2011) ‘Enjoyment and learning: policy and secondary school learners’ experience in England’, British Educational Research Journal, 37 (2): 247–64.(2012a) ‘Disengaged and disaffected young people: surviving the system’, British Educational Research Journal, 38 (2): 261–79.(2012b) ‘Leading organisational culture: issues of power and equity’, in and (eds), Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 40th Anniversary Special Issue, 40 (6): 576–91.(2013) ‘Longstanding challenges, new contexts: leadership for equality’, International Studies in Educational Administration, 40 (3): 17–32.(2015) ‘Women leading South African schools in communities of multiple deprivation’, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43 (3): 400–17.(2007) Leadership and Diversity: Challenging Theory and Practice in Education. London: Sage.with (2011) ‘Power, risk and utility – interpreting the landscape of culture in educational leadership’, Education Administration Quarterly, 47 (3): 446–61.and (2012) ‘Leadership identity in ethnically diverse schools in South Africa and England’, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 40 (1): 7–23.and (2005) ‘Equality in education: an equality of condition perspective’, Theory and Research in Education, 3 (2): 131–64.and (2015) ‘Measuring educational inequalities in mortality statistics’, Directorate STD Working Paper No. 66. Brussels: OECD. www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=STD/DOC(2015)8&docLanguage=En (accessed 08.01.2016)., , and (2015) Supporting the Attainment of Disadvantaged Pupils: Articulating Success and Good Practice. London: DfE. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/473974/DFE-RR411_Supporting_the_attainment_of_disadvantaged_pupils.pdf (accessed 30.11.2015)., , , and (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Cm4262-I. www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277111/4262.pdf (accessed 08.05.2016).(2015) ‘Hope, rage and inequality: a critical humanist’, Inclusive Education. International Journal of Progressive Education, 11 (1): 6–27.and (2006) ‘Gender and movement in social policy’, in , and (eds), The Sage Handbook of Gender and Education. London: Sage, pp. 109–24.(2008) ‘Academic buoyancy: towards an understanding of students’ everyday academic resilience’, Journal of School Psychology, 46: 53–83.and ([Page 197] (2014) ‘Beyond kung fu and takeaways? Negotiation of British Chinese identities in schools’, in and (eds), Advancing Race and Ethnicity in Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 111–27.2011) ‘The declining significance of homohysteria for male students in three sixth forms in the south of England’, British Educational Research Journal, 37 (2): 337–53.(2005) ‘Language support for immigrant children: a study of state schools in the UK and US’, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 18 (2): 164–80.and (2010) ‘Personalised and self-regulated learning in the Web 2.0 era: international exemplars of innovative pedagogy using social software’, Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26 (1): 28–43.and (2010) ‘Conflicts of ethos: issues of equity and diversity in faith-based schools’, Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 38 (5): 534–46.and (‘Mediterranean migrants’ (2015) ‘Mediterranean migrants: details emerge of deadly capsize’, BBC News, 21 April. www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-32399433 (accessed 27.11.2015).2010) Gender and Sexual Diversity in Schools. Dordrecht: Springer.(2011) ‘Free choice, free schools and the academisation of education in England’, Research in Comparative and International Education, 6 (2): 170–82.(2004) ‘Attracting, recruiting and retaining male teachers: policy issues in the male teacher debate’, British Journal of Sociology & Education, 25 (3): 355–69., and (2015) ‘Why are there still so few men within Early Years in primary schools? Views from male trainee teachers and male leaders’, Education 3–13, 43 (2): 115–27.and (2014) Tackling Homophobic, Biphobic and Transphobic Bullying among School Age Children and Young People. London: NatCen Social Research., and (2015) Religion in Britain: Challenges for Higher Education. London: Leadership Foundation.and (2006) Equal Status Reviews. Lincoln: University of Lincoln.and (2014) ‘Increase in number of special school pupils reverses trend towards inclusion’, tesconnect. www.tes.co.uk/news/school-news/breaking-news/increase-number-special-school-pupils-reverses-trend-towards (accessed 03.05.2015).(2014) ‘Polish migrant youth in Scottish schools: conflicted identity and family capital’, Journal of Youth Studies, 17 (2): 279–91.(2007) Genderwatch: Still Watching … Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books.and with and (NALDIC (2015) ‘EAL pupils in schools’. www.naldic.org.uk/research-and-information/eal-statistics/eal-pupils (accessed 23.02.2015).[Page 198]National Union of Teachers (n.d.) Anti-Semitism in the UK: A Submission to the All-Party Parliamentary Inquiry into Anti-Semitism in the UK from the National Union of Teachers. www.teachers.org.uk/files/Anti-Semitism_4424.pdf (accessed 02.11.2015).2010) ‘Developing a training program for secondary teachers of English language learners in Ohio’, Theory into Practice, 49 (2): 152–61.and (2014) ‘A school for the future – 2025: practical futures thinking’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 14 (1): 51–65.(ed.) (2009) ‘What works in migrant education? A review of evidence and policy options’, OECD Education Working Paper No. 22. Paris: OECD.(1992) ‘Can tracking research inform practice? Technical, normative, and political considerations’, Educational Researcher, 21: 12–21.(OECD (n.d.) Inequality and Education. www.oecd.org/social/inequality.htm#education (accessed 15.11.2015).OECD (2007) PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World. Paris: OECD.OECD (2009) OECD Reviews of Migrant Education: Closing the Gap for Immigrant Students: Policies, Practice and Performance. www.oecd.org/edu/school/oecdreviewsofmigranteducation-closingthegapforimmigrantstudentspoliciespracticeandperformance.htm (accessed 05.05.2016).OECD (2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools. www.oecd.org/education/school/50293148.pdf (accessed 21.07.2015).OECD (2013) Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS). http://stats.oecd.org/ (accessed 15.11.2015).OECD (2014a) Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators. Paris: OECD.OECD (2014b) Are Boys and Girls Equally Prepared for Life? www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/PIF-2014-gender-international-version.pdf (accessed 06.06.2015).OECD (2015a) A Closer Look at Gender Gaps in Education and Beyond, OECD Insights. http://oecdinsights.org/2015/03/05/a-closer-look-at-gender-gaps-in-education-and-beyond/ (accessed 06.06.2015).Ofsted (2006) Inclusion: Does It Matter Where Pupils Are Taught? London: Ofsted.Ofsted (2012) No Place for Bullying. Manchester: Ofsted.Ofsted (2014a) The Annual Report of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Education, Children's Services and Skills 2013/14. London: HMI.Ofsted (2014b) Overcoming Barriers: Ensuring that Roma Children Are Fully Engaged and Achieving in Education. London: HMI.Ofsted (2015) School Inspection Handbook. Manchester: Ofsted.2012) ‘Developing black and minority ethnic leaders: the case for customized programmes’, Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 40 (2): 158–74.(2010) ‘“I haven't changed bigots but …”: reflections on the impact of teacher professional learning in sexuality education’, Sex Education, 10 (2): 217–30.(2010) ‘Different and unequal: the educational segregation of Roma pupils in Europe’, Intercultural Education, 21 (1): 1–13.(2005) ‘Violence in schools and representations of young people: a critique of government policies in France and England’, Oxford Review of Education, 31: 191–211.and ([Page 199] (2014) ‘The national identities of the “death of multiculturalism” discourse in Western Europe’, Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 9 (3): 173–89.Oxfam (2010) The Millennium Development Goals Millennium Development Goal 2, www.oxfam.org.uk/~/media/Files/Education/Resources/Change%20the%20world%20in%20eight%20steps/goal_2.ashx (accessed online 16.01.2015).2007) Being Boys Being Girls: Learning Masculinities and Femininities. Maidenhead: Open University Press.(2014) ‘Beyond the saga of the “Trojan horse”: some reflections on teaching about Islam in schools’, The Middle East in London, 10 (5): 9–10.(2014) ‘Identity, belief and cultural sustainability: a case-study of the experiences of Jewish and Muslim schools in the UK’, in , , and (eds), International Handbook of Learning, Teaching and Leading in Faith-Based Schools. Netherlands: Springer, pp. 157–76.(2014) ‘A-Levels 2014: gender gap between boys and girls closing’, Daily Telegraph, 21 August.(2014) ‘Attitudes towards school choice and faith schools in the UK: a question of individual preference or collective interest?’, Journal of Social Policy, 43 (3): 517–34.and (2010) ‘Narrowing the gap between intention and reality: the case of special educational needs governors in English schools’, Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, 39 (6): 695–711.(2006) Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality. A report and recommendations by the Education Trust. Washington, DC: Education Trust.and (Ipsos MORI (2011) Community Cohesion and PREVENT: How Have Schools Responded? London: DfE., , and2013) Social and Public Service Impacts of International Migration at the Local Level Research Report 72. London: Home Office., , , and (Prime Minister's Strategy Unit (2005) Improving the Prospects of People Living in Areas of Multiple Deprivation in England. London: Cabinet Office/ODPM.2003) ‘Opening doors for students with disabilities on community college campuses: what have we learned? What do we still need to know?’, Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 27 (9–10): 815–27., and (1968) ‘Distributive justice: some addenda’, Natural Law Forum, Paper no. 138. http://scholarship.law.nd.edu/nd_naturallaw_forum/138 (accessed 22.01.2016).(2011) ‘The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: new evidence and possible explanations’, in and (eds), Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chances. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 91–116.(2006) ‘The zombie stalking English schools: social class and educational inequality’, British Journal of Educational Studies, 54 (3): 288–307.([Page 200] (2010) ‘Sociology, social class and education’, in , and (eds), The Routledge Handbook of the Sociology of Education. London: Routledge. pp. 396–404.2000) ‘“Coming out”: gender, (hetero) sexuality and the primary school’, Gender and Education, 12 (3): 309–26.(2008) ‘The impacts and experiences of migrant children in UK Secondary Schools’, Working Paper No 47. Brighton: University of Sussex, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, pp. 1–34. www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=mwp47.pdf&site=252 (accessed 05.05.2016).(2014) Migrants in the UK: An Overview. Oxford: Migration Observatory. www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/migrants-uk-overview (accessed 17.02.2015).and (2006) ‘Re-engaging disaffected pupils in learning: insights for policy and practice’, Improving Schools, 9 (1): 17–31., , , and (2013) ‘Teen girls, sexual double standards and “sexting”: gendered value in digital image exchange’, Feminist Theory, 14 (3): 305–23., , and (2012) ‘Exploring provision for children identified with special educational needs: an international review of policy and practice’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 28 (4): 375–91., , , and (2009) Globalizing Education Policy. London: Routledge.and (2005) ‘The capability approach: a theoretical survey’, Journal of Human Development, 6 (1): 93–117.(2003) ‘Meeting the unique needs of the children of migrant farm workers’, The Clearing House, 77 (1): 27–33.(2012) Equalities and Education in Europe: Explanations and Excuses for Inequality. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing., and (2010) ‘Expectations of achievement: student, teacher and parent perceptions’, Research in Education, 83 (1): 36–53., and (Samaritans (2015) Suicide Statistics Report, 2015. www.samaritans.org/sites/default/files/kcfinder/branches/branch-96/files/Suicide_statistics_report_2015.pdf (accessed 15.10.2015).2011) ‘A uniform approach to religious discrimination? The position of teachers and other school staff in the UK’, in (ed.), Law, Religious Freedoms and Education in Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 327–46.(2013) ‘Beginning teacher attrition: a question of identity making and identity shifting’, Teachers and Teaching, 19 (3): 260–74.(2008) ‘Assessment of migrant and minority children’, Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 216 (3): 187., , , and (1980) Equality of What? (Vol. 1, pp. 197–220). www.akira.ruc.dk/~fkt/filosofi/Artikler%20m.m/Egalitarianism/Sen%20-%20Equality%20of%20What.pdf (accessed online 03.02.2015).([Page 201] (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford University Press.2012) ‘Values and justice’, Journal of Economic Methodology, 19 (2): 101–8.(2006) ‘Leading multiethnic schools: a new understanding of Muslim youth identity’, Journal of Educational Management, Administration and Leadership, Special Edition on Leadership and Diversity, 34 (2): 215–37.(2010) ‘Leadership progression of Muslim male teachers: interplay of ethnicity, faith and visibility’, School Leadership and Management, 30 (1): 19–33.and (2011) The New Folk Devils: Muslim Boys and Education in England. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.(2015) ‘“She is Jewish, but she's OK” – the primary head minding the faith gaps’, The Guardian, 11 October. www.theguardian.com/education/2015/oct/11/primary-school-headteacher-faith-gaps-melanie-michael (accessed 29.10.2015).(2004) ‘Dialogic leadership for social justice: overcoming pathologies of silence’, Educational Administration Quarterly, 40 (1): 109–32.(2008) ‘High-quality education for all students: putting social justice at its heart’, Teacher Development: An International Journal of Teachers’ Professional Development, 12 (4): 289–300.and (2015) ‘Spies, surveillance and stakeouts: monitoring Muslim moves in British state schools’, Race Ethnicity and Education, 18 (2): 183–201.(2010) ‘Including “children with special needs” in the Indian education system: negotiating a contested terrain’, in (ed.), Confronting Obstacles to Inclusion. London: Routledge, pp. 45–57.(2011) The Irregular School: Exclusion, Schooling and Inclusive Education. London: Taylor & Francis.(2014) ‘Evolving theories of student disengagement: a new job for Durkheim's children?’, Oxford Review of Education, 40 (4): 446–65.(2012) ‘“Teachers are kind to those who have good marks”: a study of Japanese young people's views of fairness and equity in school’, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 42 (1): 27–46.and (2014) Closing the Attainment Gap in Scottish Education. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.and (2012) Black and Minority Ethnic Student Degree Retention and Attainment. York: HEA.(2012) Teaching for Dissent: Citizenship Education and Political Activism. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.(2015) A Compendium of Evidence on Ethnic Minority Resilience to the Effects of Deprivation on Attainment, Research report. London: DfE., , and (1996) ‘A model of factors affecting the treatment of disabled individuals in organizations’, Academy of Management Review, 12 (2): 352–401.and (Stonewall (undated) An Introduction to Supporting Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Young People: A Guide for Schools. Stonewall. www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/an_introduction_to_supporting_lgbt_young_people_-_a_guide_for_schools_2015.pdf (accessed 18.12.2015).[Page 202] (2015) Ethnicity, Deprivation and Educational Achievement at Age 16 in England: Trends Over Time. Annex to compendium of evidence on ethnic minority resilience to the effects of deprivation on attainment. London: DfE.2009) ‘Academic self-concept, gender and single sex schooling’, British Educational Research Journal, 35 (2): 259–88.(Sutton Trust (2013) ‘Top comprehensives are more socially selective with only half national average proportion of pupils on free school meals’. www.suttontrust.com/newsarchive/top-comprehensives-socially-selective-half-national-average-proportion-pupils-free-school-meals/ (accessed 15.12.2015).Swann Report (1985) Education for All: The Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Education of Children from Ethnic Minority Groups. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.2011) Ethnic Differences in Education and Diverging Prospects for Urban Youth in an Enlarged Europe. EDUMIGROM. Budapest: Central European University, Center for Policy Studies.(Teacher Support Network (2014) http://teachersupport.info (accessed 21.05.2014).2008) Justice and Equality in Education. London: Continuum.(2012) ‘Whole school development, inclusion and special educational needs’, in and (eds), Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, Debates and New Perspectives. London: Routledge, pp. 45–57.(2011) ‘Excluding Muslim women: from hijab to niqab, from school to public space’, Public Culture, 23 (1): 39–46.(2013) Inspiring Faith in Schools: Studies in Religious Education. Aldershot: Ashgate., and (eds) (Encountering Faiths and Beliefs: The Role of Intercultural Education in Schools and Communities. www.3ff.org.uk/documents/reports/encounteringfaithsbeliefs2015.pdf (accessed 04.05.2016).and (n.d.)United Nations General Assembly (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child. www.unicef.org/crc/index.html (accessed 18.01.2007).United Nations General Assembly (2013) International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General. www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/What-We-Do/docs/SG-report-Intl-Migration-and-Development-2013-A_68_190-EN.pdf (accessed 20.02.2015).2004). ‘The disability closet: teachers with learning disabilities evaluate the risks and benefits of “coming out”’, Equity & Excellence in Education, 37 (1): 4–17., , and (2004) Confronting Islamophobia in Educational Practice. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.(2006) ‘Who are you calling queer? Sticks and stones can break my bones, but names will always hurt me’, British Educational Research Journal, 32 (3): 347–61.(2013) Parents and Teachers: Power and Participation. London: Routledge.([Page 203] (2014) ‘Interethnic violence in schools across European countries’, in , and (eds), Children's Voices: Studies of Interethnic Conflict and Violence in European Schools. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 49–63.2015) ‘Ofsted targets “growing threat” of unregistered schools’, The Guardian, 11 December. www.theguardian.com/education/2015/dec/11/ofsted-unregistered-schools-inspectors-faith (accessed 15.12.2015).(2014) ‘“I'm a Geek I am”: academic achievement and the performance of a studious working-class masculinity’, Gender in Education, 26 (7): 709–25.(2015) ‘School leadership for equity: lessons from the literature’, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19 (4): 333–46., , , , and (2004) Homophobia, Sexual Orientation and Schools: A Review and Implications for Action, Research Report No. 594. Nottingham: DfES., and (2015) ‘More than snopp and snippa: how UK could learn from Swedish sex lessons’, The Guardian, 6 June.(2015) ‘Worlds apart: the nature and quality of the educational experiences of pupils with a statement for SEN in mainstream primary classrooms’, British Educational Research Journal, 41 (2): 324–42.and (2003) ‘Secondary school admissions in England: exploring the extent of overt and covert selection’, Centre for Educational Research, Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, Final Report, March. www.risetrust.org.uk/pdfs/admissions.html (accessed 27.04.2016).and (2003) Finding Our Way: Vocational Education in England. Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science.and (2014) NFER Teacher Voice Omnibus Research Report for the Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission. London: Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission., and (2002) ‘Dysfunctional effects of league tables: a comparison between English and Scottish primary schools’, Public Money and Management, 22 (1): 43–8.and (2010) Improving the Outcomes for Gypsy, Roma and Traveller Pupils: Final Report. London: DfE., , , , , and (2006) Learning Divides: Ten Policy Questions About the Performance and Equity of Schools and Schooling Systems. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.(2012) ‘Academies and achievement: setting the record straight’. www.changingschools.org.uk/academiesfolder/acadtitlecontents.pdf (accessed 27.04.2016).and (2004) ‘Identity traps or how Black students fail: the interactions between biographical, sub-cultural and learner identities’, in and (eds), The RoutledgeFalmer Reader in Multicultural Education. London: RoutledgeFalmer, pp. 84–102.([Page 204] and (2005) Raising Boys’ Achievement in Secondary Schools. Maidenhead: Open University Press.2007) ‘The socialization of adolescent coping behaviours: relationships with families and teachers’, Journal of Adolescence, 30 (1): 1–16.and (