Leading and Managing Continuing Professional Development


Sara Bubb & Peter Earley

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Professional Development for School Improvement

    Part II: Leading and Managing the CPD of Specific Groups

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    We would like to dedicate this book to the late Ray Bolam whose work in this field has been inspirational.

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Continuing professional development framework
    • 1.2 A career-long professional development entitlement
    • 2.1 A learning cycle
    • 2.2 The iceberg model
    • 3.1 A CPD co-ordinator job description
    • 3.2 Training and development cycle
    • 3.3 The Investors in People national standard
    • 3.4 CPD application and evaluation forms
    • 3.5 Value for Money
    • 4.1 The performance and attitude to improvement grid
    • 4.2 An action plan to meet an objective
    • 6.1 Local evaluation of INSET
    • 6.2 Evaluation of staff development
    • 7.1 A continuum of practice
    • 7.2 The research-engaged school
    • 8.1 Professional Standards for HLTA status
    • 8.2 Issues with teaching assistants
    • 9.1 Comparing routes into teaching
    • 9.2 Professional standards for qualified teacher status
    • 10.1 The first year-differences between England, Scotland and Wales
    • 10.2 An action plan to meet an objective: reports
    • 10.3 Organization of induction personnel
    • 10.4 Overview of the induction process
    • 10.5 Induction policy for term one
    • 10.6 An example of a secondary school group induction programme
    • 10.7 A primary NQTs individual induction programme – 2nd half of summer term
    • 10.8 Professional review meeting
    • 11.1 Furze Platt's folder for supply teachers
    • 12.1 The Chartered London Teacher development cycle
    • 12.2 Chartered London Teacher Standards
    • 15.1 The effective governing body

    List of Tables

    • 2.1 Characteristics of Learning Teachers
    • 2.2 Types of Learning' Schools
    • 2.3 Characteristics of a School With Outstanding CPD
    • 2.4 An extract from the Teachers' Standards Framework
    • 4.1 Five stages that teachers go through
    • 4.2 The process of setting an objective and success criteria
    • 5.1 Professional development needs identified through performance management
    • 6.1 Five levels of professional development evaluation
    • 6.2 Effective use of resources
    • 6.3 Evaluation of the impact of CPD
    • 8.1 Full-time equivalent teacher and support staff numbers (in thousands) in the maintained sector in England
    • 8.2 Full-time equivalent support staff (in thousands) in the maintained sector in England
    • 12.1 Numbers and percentages of people gaining QTS and in employment in teaching within six months 2004–05
    • 13.1 Perceptions of preparation for middle management
    • 13.2 Further training opportunities with reference to the National Standards for Subject Leaders
    • 13.3 Development opportunities participated in, in your role as a school leader during the past three years
    • 14.1 Leadership development opportunities participated in during the past three years.
    • 15.1 Governing body self-evaluation – the 4Ps


    We would like to thank all those who helped and contributed in some way to the writing of this book, particularly Graham Handscomb for writing Chapter 7. We would also like to thank all the teachers who come on our CPD and higher degree courses. They stimulate thought and help keep our feet on the ground!

    Most of all, we must thank our families – especially Paul, Julian, Miranda and Oliver – for their encouragement and tolerance.

    Publisher's Note

    Every effort has been made to acknowledge any copyrighted material reprinted herein. However, if any copyright owners have not been located and contacted at the time of publication, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.


    This book has been written for those who lead and manage continuing professional development (CPD). Continuing professional development co-ordinators hold a key role and one that needs to be developed further in many schools and colleges. We hope that this book helps people think more deeply about the professional development and training of staff – all staff – in schools and other organizations. We hope, too, that it will lead to even better practice.

    The last decade or so has seen a growing recognition, in schools and colleges, that people matter and that attention must be given to their needs, especially those concerning their professional and personal development and growth. This is perhaps best epitomized by the government's emphasis on lifelong learning and the introduction in 2001 of a strategy for continuing professional development. In 2004, the (then) Teacher Training Agency (TTA) was asked to expand its remit and to bring its expertise to bear in three new areas: (a) to improve the training and development of the wider workforce in schools; (b) to provide more co-ordinated and coherent support for the continuing professional development of teachers and support staff; and, (c) to link all its work to the emerging children's agenda. With the increase in mentoring and coaching, devolved funding to schools and professional standards that recognize the contribution of teachers to the learning of their colleagues, the school's role in leading and supporting staff learning is more crucial than ever before with remodelling as a vital tool to help schools adopt creative, innovative solutions to enhance their capacity to develop as learning-centred communities. Alongside this recognition of the importance of people there has been a growing awareness that schools do not always manage their staff – their human resources – as well as perhaps they might. The quality and quantity of professional development that individuals experience is hugely variable, largely depending on what school they are in.

    We hope that this book will help improve human resource development and its management and leadership so that more people get a better deal and that CPD is given the attention it merits.

    In writing this book we have tried to do two things. First, we have summarized the most recent relevant research – some of which we have been personally involved in – to highlight the issues and current state of affairs. This gives a firm foundation for CPD co-ordinators leading and managing professional development. Secondly, we have given examples and case studies of good practice drawn from a wide range of schools.

    The book is made up of two parts. After an introductory chapter which examines the notion of continuing professional development, locating it within the wider context of human resource development, Part I is entitled ‘Professional development for school improvement’. We argue that individual professional development is crucially important and that the professional growth and learning of staff is crucial to school improvement. How adults and schools learn is the focus of Chapter 2, which also examines the notion of the learning-centred community and effective professional development. It is important to remember that development cannot be forced and that teachers and other staff who are excited and motivated by the experience of their own learning are likely to communicate that excitement to the pupils.

    What we know about effective leadership and management of CPD is the theme of Chapter 3 where the training and development cycle is introduced. This cycle – of needs identification, meeting the training and development needs of staff, and monitoring and evaluating the impact of CPD (what Ofsted has termed ‘the logical chain’) – forms the substance of the next three chapters, whilst the final chapter of Part I, written by Graham Handscomb, examines the importance of collaborative enquiry, the sharing of practice and the growth of the self-researching or the ‘research-engaged’ school. In all of these chapters, indeed throughout the book, we draw upon latest research and examples of good practice, where possible giving case studies and pen portraits.

    Part II of the book – ‘Leading and managing the CPD of specific groups’ – examines the implications of the training and development cycle for those who work in schools. We look at specific groups or categories in schools – support staff, newly qualified teachers (NQTs), teachers in the first five years, supply teachers, middle managers, school leaders and governors. The issues around their roles and development needs are considered and we suggest ways in which they might be met.

    Although our focus is predominantly on schools we argue throughout the book that for CPD to be effective it has to be well led and managed at three levels, that of the school, the local authority and at a national level. The key goal of all educational organizations is pupil learning, whereas the on-going learning of teachers, support staff and other employees is not always prioritized or adequately resourced. Creating a culture of learning is crucial and this is shaped essentially by the attitude and approach of school leaders and governors towards CPD. There is a need to ensure that individual or personal development is not marginalized as it is crucial to teacher effectiveness and thus to the success of the school. Schools need to achieve a healthy complementarity or interrelationship between system and individual needs – something that has been absent over the past two decades. The balance needs to be right.

    We hope those in schools who are responsible for leading and managing CPD will find the book helpful. For if one of the keys to effective CPD is to ensure it is effectively led and managed, then the role of CPD co-ordinators needs to be given the kudos and time it requires to be done well. The book has been written with this in mind.

    SaraBubb and PeterEarleyInstitute of Education, University of London June 2007

    About the Authors

    Sara Bubb is an experienced London teacher who helps staff in schools develop. She does this in many ways: through leading professional development, assessing, developing schemes, researching and writing.

    With a national and international reputation in the induction of new teachers and professional development, Sara speaks at conferences and runs courses throughout the country and abroad (e.g. Norway, Taiwan) on topics such as helping staff develop, observation skills, induction, developing pedagogical skills, leading CPD, subject leadership, monitoring teaching and implementing performance management. She has featured on and been a consultant for eight Teachers TV programmes. She trains a broad range of people, including inspectors, assessors, advisers, consultants, Fasttrack, TeachFirst and advanced skills teachers.

    Sara assesses advanced skills, excellent, overseas trained and graduate teachers and higher level teaching assistants and was an external assessor for Threshold. She has inspected over 25 primary schools.

    As a senior lecturer at the Institue of Education (0.2) she works on PGCE and Masters programmes and set up the employment based routes (OTT and GTP) to QTS. She is lead director of the CfBT Educational Trust-funded Sef2Si – ‘From Self Evaluation to School Improvement: the role of effective professional development’ project. She co-directed the DfES-funded national research Project on the Effectiveness of the Induction Year, was deputy director of the TTA systematic review of induction research and helped the Northern Ireland GTC revise their teacher competences.

    On a 0.2 secondment to the (then) DfES London Challenge team, Sara is the consultant for Chartered London Teacher status – a scheme involving over 38,600 teachers. She is the London Gifted and Talented Early Years network leader, working with staff in reception and nursery classes to enhance their provision for all children, especially the most able.

    She has written books and numerous articles on induction, professional development, workload, and performance management. She is the new teacher expert at the Times Educational Supplement, and writes articles, a weekly advice column and answers questions on its website.

    Professor Peter Earley is Head of Education Leadership and Management Programmes at the London Centre for Leadership in Learning at the Institute of Education, University of London. A central research interest is leadership and he has recently completed a series of studies of school leaders. Other research interests include school governing bodies, school inspection, self-evaluation and professional development. He is currently co-ordinating projects entitled ‘From Self Evaluation to School Improvement: the role of effective professional development’ and ‘Future Leaders: an evaluation of a pilot project’.

    In addition he co-edits the practitioner journal Professional Development Today. He was the course leader for the Institute's Educational Leadership and Management MA and currently is co-ordinating the EdD specialist module on ‘Leadership and Learning in Educational Organisations’. He was until recently a school governor and a member of the executive of the National Association of School Governors.

    He has published widely and his previous books for PCP/Sage include, Understanding School Leadership (2004) (with Dick Weindling), Managing Teacher Workload: Work-life balance and wellbeing (2004) (with Sara Bubb), and Improving Schools and Inspection: The Self-inspecting School (2000) (with Neil Ferguson). He has also written, Improving Schools and Governing Bodies (1999) (with Michael Creese), Routledge and Leadership and Management in Education: Cultures, Change and Context (2005) (with Marianne Coleman), Oxford University Press.

    Graham Handscomb is Principal Adviser in Essex Schools, Children and Families Directorate and has held a number of Local Authority senior management roles. He previously taught for eighteen years and was a secondary deputy headteacher. He leads Essex's policy and practice on initial teacher training and the continuing professional development of teachers. He is an associate tutor with the University of Cambridge, and Senior Member of Hughes Hall College, Cambridge. He founded the Essex Forum for Learning and Research Enquiry (FLARE) which pioneered work on the concept of the Research-Engaged School.

    Graham is editor of Professional Development Today, and a member of the editorial board of Teaching Thinking magazine; he has written extensively on professional development. He is a member of numerous national bodies including the DfES Steering Group on a three-year research project looking at the impact of school leadership on learning; the national Thinking Skills Strategy Group, and Professional Development Board. Graham also does work with the General Teaching Council and the Training and Development Agency.


    AST Advanced skills teacher

    BECTA British Educational Communications and Technology Agency

    BTEC Business and Technology Education Council

    CEA Cambridge Education Associates

    CEDP Career Entry and Development Profile

    CLT Chartered London Teacher

    CIPD Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

    CPD Continuing professional development

    CSBM Certificate of School Business Management

    DfEE Department for Education and Employment

    DfES Department for Education and Skills

    DRB Designated Recommending Body

    DSBM Diploma of School Business Management

    EAL English as an additional language

    EDP Education development plan

    EFQM European Foundation for Quality Management

    EPD Early professional development

    ESS Education Standard Spending

    FLARE Forum for Learning and Research Enquiry

    GTC General Teaching Council

    GTP Graduate Teacher Programme

    HEADLAMP Headteacher Leadership and Management Programme

    HEI Higher education institution

    HIP Headteacher Induction Programme

    HLTA Higher level teaching assistant

    HMCI Her Majesty's Chief Inspector

    HMI Her Majesty's Inspectorate

    HoD Head of department

    HRD Human resource development

    HRM Human resource management

    ICT Information and communications technology

    IEP Individual education plan

    IiP Investors in People

    ILP Individual learning plan

    INSET In-service education and training

    IPDP Individual professional development plans

    IPPR Institute of Public Policy Research

    ITET Initial teacher education and training

    ITT Initial Teacher Training

    IWB Interactive whiteboard

    LA Local authority

    LEA Local education authority

    LftM Leading from the Middle

    LiG Leadership Incentive Grant

    LMS Local management of schools

    LPSH Leadership Programme for Serving Headteachers

    LSA Learning support assistant

    LSC Learning and Skills Council

    MFL Modern foreign languages

    MPS Main pay scale

    NAGM National Association of Governors and Managers

    NAHT National Association of Head Teachers

    NARIC National Academic Recognition Information Centre

    NC National Curriculum

    NCSL National College for School Leadership

    NCT Non-contact time

    NERF National Education Research Forum

    NFER National Foundation for Educational Research

    NLC Networked Learning Communities

    NOS National Occupational Standards

    NPQH National Professional Qualification for Headship

    NVQ National vocational qualification

    NQT Newly qualified teacher

    Ofsted Office for Standards in Education

    OSHLI Out of School Hours Learning Initiative

    OTT Overseas-trained teacher

    PDC Professional development centre

    PDP Professional development profile

    PGCE Postgraduate certificate in education

    PM Performance management

    PSLN Primary School Learning Network

    QTS Qualified teacher status

    RB Recommending body

    RE Religious education

    SCITT School-centred initial teacher training

    SDP School development plan

    SEF Self-evaluation form

    SEN Special educational needs

    SENCO Special educational needs co-ordinator

    SHA Secondary Heads Association

    SMT Senior management team

    SNA Special needs assistant

    STA Specialist teacher assistant

    SWOT Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    TA Teaching assistant

    TDA Training and Development Agency for Schools

    TDLB Training development lead body

    TES Times Educational Supplement

    TIPD Teachers' international professional development

    TPLF Teachers' Professional Learning Framework

    TTA Teacher Training Agency

    VRQ Vocationally relevant qualification

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