Leadership as Lunacy: And Other Metaphors for Educational Leadership
Publication Year: 2010
“This book will challenge, enlighten, and transform. The authors invite us to re-examine our core values as educational leaders, reconsider our priorities, and place the humanity of children at the center of our work.”
—Nancy Skerritt, Assistant Superintendent,Tahoma School District, Maple Valley, WA
“By their analysis, Lumby and English expose the power of language to shape meaning. By their skill, they illustrate the power of language to engage and enrich. Their work is an important contribution to how we understand and practice leadership in all fields.”
—Steven R. Thompson, Coordinator, School Leadership Program, Miami University
An imaginative approach to rethinking and revitalizing your leadership practice!
Research has shown that metaphors inspire leaders to reflect on their mind-sets, behaviors, practices, and approaches, leading to new perspectives on their roles. Using such ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Presence and Power of Metaphors
- Not Just Words
- From Gilgamesh to Obama: Metaphors Communicate and Connect
- How Metaphors Work
- Why a Book About Metaphors for Educational Leaders?
- Toward a New Kind of Wisdom
- Chapter 2: Leadership as Machine
- Running the Factory
- Leaders Running the Machine
- Assembling the Parts
- A Directing Intelligence
- Functioning Consistently
- Evaluating the Machine
- On Being a Machine
- The Machine Metaphor
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 3: Leadership as Accounting
- The Relentless Pursuit of Rationality and Waste
- Educational Hyperrationalization
- The Cheating Culture: Corrosion of the Means/Ends Accountability Continuum
- The Accounting Metaphor: A Chimera Wrapped Up as an Ideology
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 4: Leadership as War
- Preparing for a Board Meeting
- The Ambivalence of War Metaphors
- Military Admonitions, Educational Situations, and Contradictions
- The Way of the Warrior Is Death: Education Is Life
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 5: Leadership as Sport
- Sports: Language and Action
- The Little “Closed-System” World of an Athletic Team
- Comparisons to Educational Systems
- The Problem of the Charismatic Coach as a Model for the CEO
- Understanding the Nature of Power
- The Sports Metaphor: An Impossible Dream
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 6: Leadership as Theater
- The School as Stage: What Lies Beneath?
- The School as Staged: Long Run or Repertory?
- The School as Staged: Acting Leadership
- The School as Ritual Performance
- School as Theater
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 7: Leadership as Religion
- The Concept of the External Supreme Being
- Toward Perfection: The Idea of Progress
- Manifestations of Religion in Management and Educational Leadership
- The Presence of “Managementspeak” and Religious Rituals in School Practices
- Warring Metaphors
- The Power of Religious Metaphors: The Universal versus the Dogmatic and Partisan Experience
- Learning How to Lead Outside the Command and Control Model
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 8: Leadership as Lunacy
- Lunacy as a Form of Toxicity
- Leaders as Lunatics
- The Lunatic Psyche
- Symptoms, Signs, and Pathologies
- Obsessive–Compulsive Behavior
- The Lunacy Metaphor
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
- Chapter 9: Metaphors of Leadership
- The Uses of Metaphors
- Grand Narratives
- Positive Metaphors
- So, Where to Now?
- Leadership Practice
- Leadership Development Needs
Copyright © 2010 by Corwin
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Leadership as lunacy : and other metaphors for educational leadership / Jacky Lumby and Fenwick W. English.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-7427-1 (pbk.)
1. Educational leadership. I. English, Fenwick W. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Hudson Perigo
Associate Editor: Joanna Coelho
Editorial Assistant: Allison Scott
Production Editor: Veronica Stapleton
Copy Editor: Nancy Conger
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Proofreader: Dennis W. Webb
Cover Designer: Scott Van Atta
Polonius: What do you read, my lord?
Hamlet: Words, words, words.—(1623/1951, 2.2.191–192)
We began this book with a profound sense of malaise in our times. Somehow, something wasn't right. So many educational problems appear to be recurring, persistent, and intractable. In trying to discern why we were troubled we settled on the language used by educators, policy developers, politicians, critics, and parents in and about the schools in both of our countries—the US and the UK. We determined that at the root of the language used to describe the problems were some powerful images that were evocative and resonant. In short, we determined that the world of practice and action is anchored to a powerful world of symbols and sounds.
As we sifted through the phrases and linguistic patterns that ran through the rhetoric of both of our nations regarding education, we began to notice many similarities. We were especially provoked to think about the metaphors that are used to define education. Many imply partial solutions, or at least include images that contain solutions. We took note that when Yale economist John Geanakoplos began to develop a whole new way of looking at the financial markets and why they went bust, he was moved by a metaphor from Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice: Shylock demanding “a pound of flesh” (Whitehouse, 2009, p. A1). Geanakoplos thought that “a pound of flesh” was an image that underscored the importance of collateral in lending. When collateral was not adequate for inflated prices and lenders became uncertain, a round of selling commenced that began a downward spiral, where “falling prices and rising margins reinforce one another,” that is, the “pound of flesh” (Whitehouse, 2009, p. A18). The use of this classical Shakespearean metaphor is credited with developing [Page x]a new paradigm that explained the market forces few economists understood at the time.
We believe a similar tactic may be possible in education if we can understand how our use of symbols and language confines us to tired old analysis and worn-out solutions that we find replete in the laws and rhetoric of both nations, as they continue to struggle to improve the schooling of all children in their care. But first we had to deconstruct the most common metaphors embedded in education and why they were, at best, not adequate to the task and, at worst, toxic in their effect. This dismantling is the genesis of our book. We think it's unlike anything you may have read before.
The effort is anchored in a belief that education can enhance children's lives. That it does not appear to for many children is not the result of the conscious intention of policy makers or administrators. Rather, the pressures that shape and sometimes distort or impede children's progress are embedded in the foundations of human activity, in our social structures, and in our language. While politicians and school leaders devote much resource and attention to the daily practice of schools, language may infiltrate quite different attitudes and practices than those consciously intended. The mechanisms are not easily discernible. The language we use is like the air we breathe; we depend on it completely, but until it is cut off we are not aware of its importance. That it is important is a starting point of this book. Language does not just communicate our thoughts: it is thought. It shapes how we exist in the world, our morality, and our relationships. We use it constantly, creatively using metaphor to invite a kind of engagement. We create our world anew each time we compare one thing with another and invoke the tension of considering the similarity and dissimilarity between the two things compared. If we intend to disturb persisting patterns, it is through language that we must start. One of the greatest writers on the relationship between language, politics, and society, George Orwell, believed that changing language can change society. Going back even further in history, Plato (1973) depicted rhetoric, one form of which is the use of metaphors, as engaging not just the mind but also the soul. Our book focuses on language, and particularly on how metaphors are used in and about education and, more widely, what this can reveal not just about practice but about the soul, or the morality, of our education. It is intended to change thought as a precursor to changing much else. To improve our schools we must think about them differently. To do that we must describe them differently, and we must be acutely aware of how those descriptions lock us into predetermined solutions. Language is not neutral. It has a logic all its own, once it becomes text. We hope our readers will think more seriously about the words they use before they become text: in laws, rules, regulations, speeches, professional discourse, and editorial page soundings.
[Page xi]To achieve this very ambitious goal we draw upon writers from a range of disciplines and throughout history. We reflect a perspective from the US and the UK. We invoke images that may seem shocking, for example leaders as lunatics. We hope thereby to achieve to some degree a very difficult endeavor, and that is to influence people's thinking and not just their practice by hitting them in the heart as well as the mind. We leave it to the reader to determine if we are successful.
We gratefully acknowledge help along the way. Hudson Perigo at Corwin was consistently encouraging of a book that is somewhat “off piste.” Alison Williamson cheerfully checked on references from the earliest literature onwards and prepared the manuscript. Working across the US and UK cultures of American and British co-authors has made each of us see things anew. There was more difference in how we think and how we use language ourselves than might have appeared at first. Working together has moved us both on. We hope that the book does the same for our readers on both sides of the pond.[Page xii]
About the Authors
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