Leadership and Management Development in Education

Books

Tony Bush

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  • ‘Educational Leadership for Social Justice’ Series

    Series Editor: David Middlewood

    Tony Bush and David Middlewood Leading and Managing People in Education 2005

    Jacky Lumby with Marianne Coleman Leadership and Diversity 2007 David Middlewood and Richard Parker Leading and Managing Extended Schools 2009

    Copyright

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    Notes on the Author

    Tony Bush is Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of Warwick and previously held similar posts at the universities of Leicester, Reading and Lincoln. He has experience as a teacher and middle manager in secondary schools and as a professional officer with a local authority. He has wide international experience, having been a visiting professor, external examiner, consultant or invited keynote speaker in Australia, China, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, the Seychelles, Singapore and South Africa. He has published extensively, including his best-selling trilogy of books on Theories of Educational Leadership and Management. He has directed many research and evaluation projects on aspects of leadership and leadership development, notably for the English National College for School Leadership, and in South Africa. He is also the editor of the leading international journal, Educational Management, Administration and Leadership.

    Series Editor's Foreword

    This series of books recognises that leadership in education in the twenty-first century has an increasingly important role in the transformation of society. Leaders have an onerous responsibility to address issues which affect the development of greater social justice in their nations' attempts to ensure their economic futures.

    For those in education, leadership now involves confronting issues such as those of equity, inclusion and diversity, in stimulating the changes needed for the embedding of social justice. Such changes can only be effected by people, which is why the first book in the series focused on leading and managing people (Bush and Middlewood 2005). However, without an adequate supply of effective leaders, these changes simply will not happen. To be effective, they need to be well prepared, trained and developed. This book deals with the topic of how educational leaders are, and perhaps might be, prepared and developed for their crucial roles.

    No author can be better qualified to write such a book than Tony Bush, one of the leading researchers and writers on educational leadership, especially in the international context, and this authoritative text is the result of many years of personal research in many countries. This long-needed book gives a comprehensive overview of international practice in this field, covering both developed and developing nations. Practice is shown to vary widely, according to context, culture and, inevitably, available resources. Despite the variety of practice, Tony Bush is able to draw out the commonalities as well as the differences, showing, for example, how the content of leadership preparation programmes can be similar despite the diversity of contexts.

    The author also analyses the trends in leadership preparation and development which are discernible across differing contexts, for example, the shift in emphasis from content to process and, tellingly, the need to help leaders prepare to address major issues such as diversity and inclusion in increasingly pluralistic societies.

    There are no simple answers to the question ‘What is the best way to prepare and develop leaders in education?’ However, this masterly book not only gives the fullest possible picture and expert analysis of the field, but it will stimulate debate among professional practitioners and academics alike, and prove an invaluable resource for those seeking these answers.

    DavidMiddlewood

    Preface

    The significance of effective leadership and management for the successful operation of schools and colleges is widely acknowledged in the twenty-first century. There is growing recognition that the quality of leaders, and leadership, is critical if schools are to produce the best possible outcomes for their learners, and their stakeholders. The longstanding appreciation of the vital role of teachers is belatedly being matched by an understanding that skilled leadership is also required if schools and colleges are to thrive.

    The traditional view in many countries is that school principals and senior staff need only to be qualified and experienced teachers. However, there is now an emerging recognition that leadership is a parallel, if not separate, profession and requires specific preparation. This has led many countries to introduce formal development opportunities for aspiring and practising principals. In countries as diverse as Canada, England, France, Scotland and the USA, a formal leadership qualification is required before senior leaders take up their posts. Elsewhere, there is more reliance on in-service opportunities. The nature of the development process varies in line with the specific context, but the overall trend is towards preparing and developing leaders as a key dimension of school improvement.

    The landscape of leadership development in England has been transformed by the opening, and subsequent expansion, of the National College for School Leadership (NCSL). The College provides a raft of programmes for middle leaders, deputy heads, aspiring heads, new heads, experienced leaders and teams. This ambitious provision is supported by an active research function. The NCSL has had a major impact on school leadership in England and has also influenced change in many other countries.

    This book examines the reasons for the expansion of leadership preparation and training, and assesses the various modes of development in use in many countries. It is underpinned by the view that leaders should have an entitlement to appropriate preparation and support for their important and onerous role in leading educational change. To appoint school principals without specific preparation is a gamble, and we should not gamble with children's education.

    Chapter 1 sets the scene by discussing the reasons for the enhanced global interest in the role of school leaders. It assesses the differences between leadership and management, and argues that both are essential if schools and colleges are to thrive. It also examines the evidence that effective leadership is critical to school improvement.

    While the importance of leadership and management is increasingly recognized, much less is known about which leadership behaviours are most likely to promote successful schooling. Chapter 2 examines the various models of leadership and assesses the evidence of their effectiveness. There is great interest in ‘instructional leadership’ because of the widespread view that the main function of schools is to promote student learning. Transformational leadership is widely advocated because of its potential to harness stakeholder support for the school's (or leader's) vision but there is some concern that this may be a vehicle for imposing leaders', or governments', priorities on teachers, pupils and communities. These and other models are subject to scrutiny in this chapter.

    Chapter 3 addresses the significance of leadership and management development in education. It points to the emergence of four imperatives; the expanded role of school leaders, the increasing complexity of school contexts, the moral case for leadership preparation, and the growing evidence that effective development makes a difference.

    Chapter 4 discusses the curriculum for leadership development. There is great diversity in the content of preparation and training programmes but there is an emerging ‘core’ around the need to provide for the management of teaching and learning, an awareness of the legal and policy framework for leadership, the need for effective management of people and resources, and a recognition that efficient administration is required to keep schools ‘on track’. In the twenty-first century, there has been increasing interest in the ‘delivery’ of programmes and on the processes by which leadership learning is enhanced. Networking, mentoring, coaching and facilitation are among the strategies used in several countries and there is growing evidence of their effectiveness.

    Chapter 5 focuses on preparation and support for leaders in developed countries. These are mostly rich nations and decisions about the shape and scope of leadership preparation are based on perceptions of need and appropriateness rather than being circumscribed by limited funding. The chapter examines five stages of development: leadership succession, preparation, selection, induction and ongoing in-service development.

    As we noted earlier, the NCSL is a powerful symbol of the growing significance of leadership development. Chapter 6 examines the background to the opening of the College and notes the significance of its Leadership Development Framework, which helped to move the debate from the preparation of principals to a wider appreciation of the need to develop leaders at all levels and career stages. The many achievements of NCSL are discussed along with the various criticisms of its work.

    Chapter 7 shifts the debate to developing countries. Their need for effective leadership is even greater than in rich Western nations but their resources are very limited. Pre-service preparation is rare and the limited development opportunities are mainly confined to in-service activity. Selection criteria are usually confined to teaching experience, while induction for new principals is limited and often inadequate. Ongoing support for school leaders is uneven and principals sometimes feel isolated and beleaguered. The chapter concludes with a recommendation that donor bodies give much more attention to school leadership preparation and development.

    Chapter 8 examines the impact of leadership development. While its importance is widely acknowledged, specific evidence of its effects are limited. The chapter revisits the purposes of leadership development in order to determine criteria for evaluation. It assesses various models of evaluation and impact, and considers the emerging evidence that leadership preparation and development do make a difference to school and learning outcomes.

    Chapter 9 provides an overview of this important issue. It claims that leadership matters and revisits the debate about content and process. It examines the relationship between leadership and values, and considers its implications for development. It outlines a model for school leadership development and concludes that preparation has been ‘nationalised’.

    I am grateful to the many people who have contributed to the development of this volume. David Middlewood has been a supportive series editor, and has provided many valuable suggestions on draft chapters. Derek Glover and I have worked together for many years and his literature reviews underpin much of the analysis in this book. I am also grateful for the more general support of many other colleagues in England and in many other countries. I have been fortunate to be able to conduct research in this field for several bodies, including the NCSL. Of course, the opinions expressed in this book are mine and may not represent the views of the College.

    Finally, I wish to thank those close to me, especially Cha and Graham.

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    Author Index

    • Achinstein, B. and Athanases, S., 43
    • Afonso, N., 64
    • Agezo, C.K. and Christian, G., 92
    • AlertNet, 93
    • Alimo-Metcalfe, B, 34
    • Allix, N.M, 13
    • Amezu-Kpeglo, 94
    • Avolio, B. J., 30
    • Babyegeya, E, 5
    • Barallon, L., 134
    • Bassett, S., 44
    • Beare, H, et al, 3, 6
    • Becaj, J, 12
    • Bennett, N, et al, 15, 22
    • Bennis, W. and Nanus, B, 3
    • Berzina, Z., 56, 62
    • Bezzina, C., 56, 58, 104, 134
    • Billot, J., 104
    • Bjork, L., and Murphy, J., 35–36, 51, 58, 132, 133, 135
    • Blackmore, J., 13
    • Blase, J. and Blase, J.R, 18, 19
    • Bloom, G., et al., 44
    • Bolam, R, 1, 34, 73, 74, 79, 80, 82, 87, 136
    • Bolam, R. et al., 74
    • Bolman, L.G. and Deal T.E, 10
    • Bottery, M, 5, 14
    • Brew-Ward, M., 91
    • Brundrett, M, 77, 78, 133
    • Brundrett, M., et al, 28, 30, 57, 66, 77, 82, 83, 84, 108, 110, 111
    • Buckland, P., and Thurlow, M., 98, 113
    • Burgoyne, J., et al., 42 Bush, T, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 30, 59, 74, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 95, 118, 128, 132, 134
    • Bush, T. and Chew, J, 37, 57, 132
    • Bush, T. and Coleman, M, 74
    • Bush, T. and Glover, D, 9, 10, 11, 18, 20, 39, 47, 48, 49, 66, 81, 119, 128
    • Bush, T. and Heystek, J., 95, 97, 98, 103, 112
    • Bush, T. and Jackson, D, 33, 39, 49, 58, 69, 81, 104
    • Bush, T. and Joubert, R., 79
    • Bush, T. and Middlewood, D., 63, 65
    • Bush, T. and Moloi, K.C., 113
    • Bush, T. and Oduro, G, 26, 27, 29, 89, 94, 105, 131
    • Bush, T., Allen, T., Glover, D., Middlewood, D. and Sood, K., 77, 78, 113, 129, 132
    • Bush, T., Bisschoff, T., Glover, D., Heystek, J., Joubert, R. and Moloi, K.C., 95
    • Bush, T., Briggs, A.R.J. and Middlewood, D., 31–32, 66, 116, 118–119, 120
    • Bush, T., Coleman, M. and Glover, D., 5
    • Bush, T., Coleman, M. and Si, X., 12
    • Bush, T., Duku, N., Kiggundu, E., Kola, S., Msila, V., and Moorosi, P., 38, 44, 59, 91, 92, 95, 116, 121, 127, 128
    • Bush, T., Glover, D. and Harris, A., 43, 45, 46, 48, 49, 50, 51, 69, 78, 81, 83, 98, 108, 109, 111, 112, 113, 126, 127, 135
    • Bush, T., Joubert, R. and Moloi, K.C., 49
    • Bush, T., Middlewood, D., Morrison, M. and Scott, D., 116, 120–121, 126, 129
    • Bush, T., Purvis, M.T. and Barallon, L., 90, 92, 94, 98, 105
    • Caldwell, B. 11
    • Caldwell, B. and Spinks, J., 5, 13
    • Campling, L. and Rosalie, M., 92
    • Cardno, C., and Howse, J., 104
    • Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI), 73
    • Centre for Excellence, 45, 68, 69
    • Chin, J, 34–35
    • Chirichello, M, 13
    • Chong, K. C., et al., 37, 44, 46, 47, 55, 57, 70, 131, 134
    • Coleman, A., 82
    • Coleman, M., 113
    • Coleman, M., et al., 113
    • Collarbone, P., 69
    • Commonwealth Secretariat, the, 7, 29, 89, 105
    • Crossley, M., and Holmes, K., 104
    • Crow, G, 27, 29, 31, 48, 65, 73, 76, 80, 82, 84, 106, 127, 130, 135
    • Cuban, L, 3
    • Daming, F, 37
    • Daresh, J. and Male, T, 30
    • Davies, B, 44, 54, 60
    • Davis, B., 60
    • Day, C, 34
    • Day, C, et al, 3, 4
    • Dellar, G, 6
    • Department of Education, South Africa, 7, 21, 38, 95, 97, 98, 103, 108, 109, 127, 129, 131, 135
    • Department for Education and Skills (DfES), 58, 115
    • Derks, S., 64, 67, 68
    • Derouet, J, 5
    • Drake, P., et al., 62
    • Dressler, B, 11
    • Earley, P. and Weindling, D. 46
    • Easterly, W. and Kray, A., 92
    • Erculj, J., 59, 64, 69
    • Fabunmi, M. and Adewale, J.G., 92
    • Fenech, J, 5 Foreman, K, 3
    • Fouquet, J. M., 36
    • Frost, D., and Durrant, J., 50
    • Fullan, M, 3
    • Gayer, G., 65, 68
    • Gaziel, H, 12
    • Gergely, L., 61, 63, 67, 69
    • Girls Education Unit, 91
    • Glatter, R, 1, 30
    • Gold, A, et al, 17
    • Green, H., 48
    • Gronn, P. and Ribbins, P., 56, 67, 98
    • Gunter, H., 74, 128, 132, 133
    • Hallinger, P, 18, 28, 31, 107, 125, 130, 136
    • Hallinger, P. and Bridges, E., 47
    • Hallinger, P. and Heck, R., 7, 122
    • Hansen, B., 56, 61, 63
    • Hardy, M., 45
    • Harber, C. and Davis, L, 27, 29, 90, 91, 92, 93, 99
    • Hargreaves, A., and Fink, D., 54
    • Harris, A, 6, 7, 49, 109
    • Harrison, J., et al, 43
    • Hartley, J. and Hinksman, B, 42, 108, 109
    • Hawkey, K, 43
    • Heck, R, 31, 108, 109, 112, 116, 118
    • Herbohm, K., 43
    • Herriot, A., et al., 96, 98
    • Hill, P, 19
    • Hobson, A. and Sharp, C, 43
    • Huber, S., 7, 9, 25, 28, 58, 64, 107, 108, 109, 114, 127, 130, 132, 134
    • Huber, S. and Cuttance, P., 66
    • Huber, S. and Gopinathan, S., 62
    • Huber, S. and Imants, J., 60
    • Huber, S. and Leithwood, K, 36, 58, 135
    • Huber, S. and Meuret, D, 36, 58, 133
    • Huber, S. and Robertson, J., 64
    • Huber, S. and Rosenbusch, H., 60
    • Huber, S. and Schratz, M, 37
    • Hughes, M., et al., 74
    • Inkoom, E.A., 91
    • Isok, H., and Lilleorg, L., 56, 59, 63, 69
    • James, C., and Whiting, D., 48
    • James, K. and Burgoyne, J, 42
    • Johansson, O., 66
    • Johnson, N, 28
    • Kaparou, M., and Bush, T., 13
    • Kavouri, P. and Ellis, D, 12
    • Keough, T. and Tobin, B, 16
    • Kitavi, M and van Der Westhuizen, P, 26, 89–90, 94, 100, 101
    • Klus-Stanska, D. and Olek, H, 12
    • Kogoe, A., 103
    • Kouzes, J. and Posner, B, 3
    • Lafond, A. and Helt, J.P., 55, 62, 68
    • Lam, J., 70
    • Lambert, 1, 19
    • Lauglo, J, 4–5
    • Leask, M. and Terrell, I, 45
    • Lein, E., 63, 67, 69
    • Leithwood, K, 13, 19, 22
    • Leithwood, K et al, 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 31, 108, 112, 122, 125, 126
    • Leithwood, K. and Levin, B., 115, 116, 118, 119, 122
    • Levacic, R., 5
    • Levine, A., 79, 83, 85, 86
    • Lim, L. H., 62
    • Lin, M. D, 37–38
    • Lulat, Y., 92
    • Lumby, J. and Coleman, M., 108, 109, 113, 129
    • Lumby, J. et al, 31
    • Male, T, 34, 77, 82, 108, 110, 111
    • March, J., 8, 25
    • Mathews, P, 43
    • McFarlane, A., et al, 46
    • McGill, I. and Beaty, L., 47
    • McLennan, A., 97
    • McLennan, A. and Thurlow, M., 108
    • Middlewood, D., 65
    • Miller, T.W. and Miller, J.M, 15, 21
    • Moos, L., 54, 61, 63
    • Morgan, G, 10, 20
    • Mulford, B., 76
    • Murphy, J. and Shipman, N, 35
    • Murray, M., 64, 66
    • National College for School Leadership, the, 7, 18, 45, 53, 54, 55, 66, 68, 69, 75, 76, 77, 78, 81, 85, 86, 87, 91, 108, 110, 114, 125, 126, 127, 128, 130, 133, 135, 136
    • Naylor, P., et al, 108, 116
    • Newland, C, 12
    • Newman, J. and Clarke, J., 2
    • Nilsson, P., 93
    • Ng, H.M., 128
    • Oduro, G.K.T., 91, 93, 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 102–103
    • Oduro. G.K.T. and MacBeath, J., 98
    • Oplatka, I., 90, 99, 103
    • Osei, J., 91
    • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the, 5, 6
    • Owolabi, S.O. and Edzii, A.A., 92
    • Pansiri, N., 103, 104
    • Pashiardis, P., 55, 56, 118
    • Pashiardis, P. and Ribbins, P., 56, 61, 62
    • Peterson, K., and Kelley, C., 49
    • Pheko, B., 99, 101, 131
    • Pocklington, K. and Weindling, D, 43
    • Proctor-Thomson, S. B., 42
    • Reeves, D., 111, 115
    • Reeves, J., et al., 108, 111, 115, 118, 134
    • Republic of Botswana, 103
    • Revell, P., 77
    • Rigg, C. and Richards, C, 42–43
    • Rizvi, M., 96–97
    • Roeder, W. and Schkutek, H, 26, 63, 66
    • Sackney, L. and Mitchell, C, 16
    • Sackney, L. and Walker, K, 30
    • Sala, J., 64
    • Sapra, C, 27, 29
    • Sapre, P, 1
    • Savery, L et al, 14
    • School Management Task Force (SMTF), 74
    • Scott, F., 104
    • Scurati, C., 63, 68
    • Sebakwane, S, 12
    • Sergiovanni, T, 14, 16–17, 17–18, 20
    • Shakeshaft, C., 113
    • Simkins, T., 78
    • Simkins, T., et al., 44, 48, 94
    • Slavikova, L. and Karabec, S, 28, 62
    • Smith. P.A.C., 47
    • Southworth, G, 18–19, 74, 76, 80, 84, 85
    • Stanev, S. and Mircheva, V., 56, 63, 67
    • Starratt, R.J, 16
    • Stott, K., and Trafford, V., 48
    • Sundli, L, 43
    • Svecova, J, 12
    • Taylor, P. and Rowan, J., 64
    • Tekleselassie, A., 91, 95–96, 99, 101, 102, 106
    • Thody, A., et al., 128
    • Thomas, H. and Martin, J, 5
    • Thrupp, M., 86
    • Tomlinson, H., 54
    • Tsukudu, P. and Taylor, P., 95
    • Tuohy, D. and Coghlan, D, 15
    • Tusting, K. and Barton, D, 42, 109
    • Underhill, C. M., 44
    • Van Der Westhuizen, P. and Van Vuuren, H., 125
    • Van Der Westhuizen, P., et al., 95, 97
    • Varri, K. and Alava, J, 36
    • Waite, D, 10
    • Wales, C. and Welle-Strand, A, 36–37
    • Walker, K. and Carr-Stewart, S., 108, 111
    • Walker, A. and Dimmock, C., 80
    • Walker, A. and Qian, H, 27
    • Wasserberg, M, 3
    • Watson, K., 105
    • Watson, L., 26, 28, 30, 33, 34, 36, 44, 54, 63, 68, 107, 108, 109, 110, 129
    • Weindling, D., 82
    • West-Burnham, J, 14–15, 17, 34
    • Wolf, S., and Gearheart, M., 48–49
    • World Bank, 93
    • Young, M, 6
    • Yukl, G, 3, 20
    • Zagoumennov, Y., and Shalkovich, L., 55, 62, 66, 68, 118

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