This book walks students through the selection and application of research methods within tourism. The authors introduce the relevant language and theory of key methodologies and then develop them using strategic literature review and the inclusion of international examples which relate directly to tourism. The historical and philosophical context of each method is then carefully laid out alongside the practical application of the technique. Each concept sets the historical and philosophical context of a method alongside the practical application of the technique.

Critical Realism

Critical realism

Definition Critical Realism is a way of understanding the natural and human sciences that is committed to the view that the objects of scientific knowledge both exist and act independently of our beliefs about them but, at the same time, rejects simple ‘one to one’ links between beliefs and reality (Benton, 2004).


If you are drawn to Critical Realism, then the challenge you face will be to directly confront the language of the philosophies of the social sciences as a part of your research project. The priority such activity will have in terms of time allocation and resolve to master quite complex material will probably depend on the academic level at which you are studying tourism. In our opinion, this key concept is ...

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