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This word is a deceptively flexible one, with a diversity of different meanings in the social sciences. The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology (Abercrombie et al., 2000: 83) identifies six discrete interpretations of the term, four of which can serve as a framework for relating the concept to sport.

First, ‘culture’ can be seen to refer to every aspect of human behaviour that is not derived from biology – that is, in other words, learned. The standard contention of sociologists (and others) is, of course, that most human behaviour is rooted in culture and not in biology and, to a significant degree, they may be thought to have won this argument. That's to say, whereas in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a majority of scientists ...

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