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(see also Capitalism; Hegemony)

Marxist theory understands human societies as being organized into classes which are shaped by divisions and conflicts of interest. These conflicts arise out of the general organisational form (mode) of production in any given historical period. In the capitalist epoch this is reflected in the two major class groups: the working class (proletariat) who are forced to sell their labour in order to survive; and the capitalist class (bourgeoisie) who own the means of production and gain profit through the exploitation of the working class.

Karl Marx, philosopher, political economist and revolutionary, was born in Germany in 1818 and died in exile in England in 1883. He is buried in Highgate Cemetery. Although considered one of the pillars of classical nineteenth-century sociology ...

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