This book provides students and scholars with a fail-safe guide to the key concepts in the field of Sport & Exercise Science. Intelligently cross-referenced entries provide a sound map of the multi-disciplinary demands of sport related courses including physical and biological sciences, social science and education. The entries use clear definitions, examples, and suggestions for further reading to explore each discipline.

Energy Balance and Body Composition

Energy balance and body composition

Energy balance represents the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure and is fundamental to health and physical performance.

If EI > EE, then EB is positive and energy is stored in the body. If EI < EE, then EB is negative and energy is lost from the body.

Changes in energy balance and energy stores over a period of a few days are reflected by changes in body mass, as defined by the First Law of Thermodynamics. The energy (fuel) stores of the body comprise glycogen, fat and protein. Glycogen is the body's store of carbohydrate and is contained mainly within skeletal muscles (∼ 80%) and the liver (∼ 20%). Protein stores (in skeletal, cardiac and smooth ...

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