This book provides students and scholars with a fail-safe guide to the key concepts in the field of Sport & Exercise Science. Intelligently cross-referenced entries provide a sound map of the multi-disciplinary demands of sport related courses including physical and biological sciences, social science and education. The entries use clear definitions, examples, and suggestions for further reading to explore each discipline.

Energy Systems

Energy systems

The human body needs a supply of energy for all its functions, including exercise, which is sourced through the foods we consume daily as dietary carbohydrate, fat and protein. These can be used as fuels in the form of glucose, free fatty acids and amino acids.

The energy currency in most processes in the body is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Energy is released from ATP when one of the phosphate groups is removed through the process of hydrolysis (a chemical process in which a substance is split into simpler compounds by the addition of water) releasing 7.3 kcal of energy per mole of ATP. Metabolic pathways exist within the body that both exploit the energy of ATP but also ensure the resynthesis of ATP from ...

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