The SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.
Key Concepts in Public Relations:
- Provides a comprehensive, easy-to-use overview to the field
- Covers over 150 central concepts in PR
- Paves the way for students to tackle primary texts
- Grounds students in both practice and theory
- Takes it further with recommended reading
Also described as net income, the bottom line is a financial performance measure and is equal to the income that a firm has after subtracting costs and expenses from the total revenue. Expenses will typically include tax [Page 31]expense. For a retail firm, subtracted costs may be the cost of goods sold, sales discounts, and sales returns and allowances. For a product company advertising, manufacturing, and design and development costs are included.
Net income is sometimes called the bottom line because it is typically found on the last line of a company's income statement. This can be found in a public company's annual report. Another term that is closely related to bottom line is top line. As the total revenue forms the first line ...