Key Concepts in Public Health

Books

Edited by: Frances Wilson & Mzwandile Mabhala

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Theoretical Concepts

    Part II: Practical Concepts

    Part III: Populations and Public Health Practice

  • Recent volumes include:

    Key Concepts in Social Research

    Geoff Payne and Judy Payne

    Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies

    Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan

    Key Concepts in Medical Sociology

    Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston

    Key Concepts in Leisure Studies

    David Harris

    Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory

    Nick Crossley

    Key Concepts in Urban Studies

    Mark Gottdiener and Leslie Budd

    Key Concepts in Mental Health

    David Pilgrim

    Key Concepts in Journalism Studies

    Bob Franklin, Martin Hamer, Mark Hanna, Marie Kinsey and John Richardson

    Key Concepts in Political Communication

    Darren G. Lilleker

    Key Concepts in Teaching Primary Mathematics

    Derek Haylock

    Key Concepts in Work

    Paul Blyton and Jean Jenkins

    Key Concepts in Nursing

    Edited by Elizabeth Mason-Whitehead, Annette McIntosh, Ann Bryan and Tom Mason

    Key Concepts in Childhood Studies

    Allison James and Adrian James

    The SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Editors and Contributors

    Editors

    Mzwandile (Andi) Mabhala FRIPH, M.Sc.(PH), B.Sc. (Hons) PG Cert. Ed. is Senior Lecturer in Public Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester and Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health.

    Frances Wilson M.Sc., B.Sc., PG Dip Ed., RGN, RM, SCPHN is Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader, M.Sc. Health Improvement and Wellbeing and Pathway Leader, Specialist Community Public Health Nursing (Health Visiting), Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Authors

    Hamed A. Adetunji B.Sc., Dip. (Epid)., M.Sc. (Epid)., MPH, Ph.D., PGCHE, FRIPH is Course Leader, M.Sc. Public Health, Oxford Brookes University.

    Fiona Adshead B.Sc., MB BS, FRCP, M.Sc., FFPH is Deputy Chief Medical Officer in the Department of Health for England and the Chief Government Adviser on Health Inequalities.

    Edward Andersson MA, MSc. is Project Manager at Involve, London.

    Moyra Baldwin B.Sc. (Hons), M.MedSci. (Clinical Nursing), RN (Adult), RCNT, RT, Dip. N. (London), Cert. Ed, Dip. Adv. Nursing Studies, JBCNS 100, ENB 931 is Senior Lecturer and Programme Leader of the Post Graduate Certificate in Health and Social Care Commissioning, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Tina Barrows RGN. Dip. RHV. B.Sc. (Hons) Community Health. Adult Cert. Ed. is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and Social Care at the University of Chester and Specialist Community Public Health Nurse (Health Visiting), Warrington (NHS) Community Services Unit.

    Sara Bell RNLD, BA (Hons), Specialist Practitioner is Senior Lecturer in Learning Disability Nursing and Programme Leader, Specialist Practitioner Qualification in Community Learning Disability Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Clive Blair-Stevens B.Sc., CQSW, ASW is co-founder of the National Social Marketing Centre based in London, and its Director of Strategy and Operations.

    Ann Bryan M.Sc., Cert. Ed., ADM, RGN, RM, HV, RMT is Head of Community and Child Health, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Pat Clarke B.Sc. (Hons) Health Studies, RGN, RM, RHV is health visitor and professional development nurse, Wirral PCT.

    Nicola Close MA (Oxon), MA (Bham), FRIPH, FRSS, MIHM is Chief Executive, Association of Directors of Public Health, Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health and of the Royal Statistical Society and Member of the Institute of Healthcare Management.

    Irene Cooke RGN, RM, MPH, DN, B.Sc. (Hons), PGCHE, CPNP is Senior Lecturer in Public Health and Community Nursing, Programme Lead for the B.Sc./PG Dip./M.Sc. Specialist Practitioner in Community Nursing Programmes, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    David Coyle RN, M.Ed Cert. Ed. is Senior Lecturer in Mental Health, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Diane Crone B.Sc. (Hons), Ph.D. is Reader in Exercise Science, Faculty of Sport, Health and Social Care, University of Gloucestershire and is a BASES accredited exercise scientist (support and research).

    Pat Deeny RN, B.Sc. (Hons) Nursing, Adv. Dip. Ed., RNT is Senior Lecturer in the School of Nursing, University of Ulster.

    Walid El Ansari MBBCH, Dip. (P. Ed.), DTM&H, M.Sc. (PHM), PG Cert. (HE), Ph.D. (Wales), Ph.D. (Oxford Brookes), FRIPH is Professor and Head of Public Health, Faculty of Sport, Health and Social Care, University of Gloucestershire.

    Basma Ellahi RPHNutr., MIFST, Ph.D, M.Sc., B.Sc., Pg Cert is Head of Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester.

    Michelle Falconer MPH, BN (Hons), RGN, DN Cert, is Immunisation Co-ordinator for Halton & St Helens PCT.

    Jeff French Ph.D., MBA, M.Sc., Dip. HE, BA, Cert. Ed. is Director of the National Social Marketing Centre and a Fellow at Kings College, London.

    Kim Greening MA, BSc. (Hons), Dip. Mgmt, PGCE, RN, HV Dip. is Deputy Head of Department – Practice Learning, Development and Allied Healthcare, Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Chester.

    Jan Hardy RGN, RM, SPCHN, B.Sc. Professional Practice (Public Health), PGDE is Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Scott Harrison RN, RHV, B.Sc. (Hons), MA is Public Health Nursing Supervisor at Fraser Health Authority, Vancouver, Canada.

    Elaine Hogard Ph.D. MA, M.Sc., BA (Hons) is Professor of Evaluation Research in the Social and Health Evaluation Unit, Faculty of Education and Children's Services, University of Chester.

    Graham Holroyd M.Sc., BA (Hons), Dip. ASCE (Dist.), MIHEP, Fellow Higher Education Academy is Senior Lecturer and Course Leader in the School of Health and Postgraduate Medicine at the University of Central Lancashire, an Associate Lecturer, School of Health and Social Care, Open University and Chair of the European Men's Health Research Network.

    John Horley RN (Child) Dip. HE (nursing) M.Sc. (APNP) is Lecturer in Community and Child Health, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Mike Horah BA (Hons) is career civil servant in the Department of Health and acting Policy Adviser to the National Social Marketing Centre, National Consumer Council.

    Richard Jarvis MBBS, B.Sc., MPH, PG Dip.Sci. (Environmental Protection) FFPH is Consultant in Health Protection, Cheshire and Merseyside Health Protection Unit.

    Peete Lesiamo PG Cert., BA HRM, B.Ed. Education in Development, BA ED is a Public Health Practitioner, Pholokoeo, South Africa.

    Gail Louw Ph.D, BA, MA, M.Sc. is Principal Lecturer and Public Health Programme Leader, Institute of Postgraduate Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School.

    Andy Lovell Ph.D., BA (Hons), Cert. Ed., RNLD is Reader in Learning Disabilities, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester

    Judith Lydon RN, RHV, SN, B.Sc. (Hons), P.G Cert. is Community Matron for Vulnerable Adults, Warrington PCT.

    Jean Mannix M.Ed. Professional Education, B.Sc. (Hons), RGN, SCPHN, HV, Nurse Prescriber is Deputy Head of the Community and Child Health Department and Programme Leader M.Sc./PGD/B.Sc. [Hons] Specialist Community Public Health Nursing programme, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Elizabeth Mason-Whitehead Ph.D., BA (Hons), HV, PGDE, ONC, SRN, SCM is Reader in Community Studies, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Alan Massey M.Sc. in Public Health and Health Promotion; B.Sc. (Hons), SCPHN (Occupational Health) is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Jill McCarthy M.Sc., B.Ed. (Hons), RGN, DN, RNT is Senior Lecturer, and Programme Leader, M.Sc. in Professional Practice, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Rowena Merritt D.Phil. is Practitioners Development Programme Manager, National Social Marketing Centre.

    Hayley Mills B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. is Ph.D. candidate, Faculty of Sport, Health and Social Care, University of Gloucestershire.

    Sue Phillips RGN, RHV, BA (Hons) Nursing Education, M.Sc. Primary Healthcare is Senior Lecturer and AP(E)L/Work Based Learning Co-ordinator, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Nicholas Fulton Phin MB, CLB, LLM, FFPHM is Consultant Epidemiologist, Respiratory Virus Infection (influenza and SARS), Health Protection Agency, Centre for Infections, London.

    Dianne Phipps MA, PGCE, RNMH is Deputy Head of Department – Mental Health and Learning Disabilities, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Gabrielle Rabie RMN, SRN, SCPHN, MPH is Senior Lecturer, Programme Lead for Youth Matters, Pathway Lead, School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Pat Rose RN, SCPHN (HV), M.Sc., B.Sc., Dip.N., Cert. Ed. is Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Soumen Sengupta B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc. is Head of Planning and Health Improvement, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, West Dunbartonshire Community Health Partnership.

    Alex G. Stewart MB, Ch.B., MPH, MFPHMI, MFPH, DRCOG, DTM&H, FHEA is Consultant in Health Protection, Cheshire & Merseyside Health Protection Unit.

    Janine Talley Ph.D., MA, B.Sc., PGCE is Staff Tutor, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Open University working in health and management.

    Mike Thomas Ph.D., MA (Law), B. Nurs., RMN, RNT, Cert. Ed., MILT is Professor of Eating Disorders and Dean, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester.

    Allison Thorpe M.Sc. (PH), MRIPH, B.Sc. (Hons) is Policy Manager, National Social Marketing Centre.

    Rachel A. Wells MPH, M.Sc. is Consultant in Public Health, member of the Voluntary Register for Public Health, Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health and member of the UKPHA.

    Acknowledgements

    The editors would like to thank their colleagues at University of Chester for their support and encouragement.

    Frances would like to thank her husband Michael for his unstinting support.

    Andi would like to thank Melanie for her fortitude.

  • References

    Acheson, D., (1998) Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report. London: Stationery Office.
    Adams, T. and Rini, A., (2007) ‘Predicting 1-year change in body mass index among college students’, Journal Am. Coll. Health, 55(6): 361–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JACH.55.6.361-366
    Aday, L., (1993) The Health and Healthcare Needs of Vulnerable Populations in the United States. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Adshead, F., Thorpe, A. and Rutter, J., (2006). ‘Sustainable development and public health: a national perspective’, Public Health, 120: 1102–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2006.10.003
    Age Concern (2006a). ‘As Fit as Butchers' Dogs?’ Report on Healthy Lifestyle Choice and Older People. Retrieved 12 December 2007, from http://www.ageconcern.org.uk
    Age Concern (2006b) Public Health and Health Inequalities: Position Paper. Retrieved 5 December 2007, from http://www.ageconcern.org.uk/AgeConcern/health_policy_position.asp
    Aggleton, P., Blenkinshop, S., Chase, E., Eggers, M., Schagen, I., Schagen, S. et al., (2004) Evaluation of the Impact of the National Healthy School Standard. London: National Foundation for Educational Research/Thomas Coram Research Unit.
    Albee, G. W. and Ryan-Finn, K., (1993) ‘An overview of primary prevention’, Journal of Counselling and Development, 72: 115–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1993.tb00909.x
    Alexander, M. P., Zakocs, R. C., Earp, J. A. and French, E., (2006) ‘Community coalition project directors: what makes them effective leaders?’Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 2(2): 201–9.
    Andersson, E., Tritter, J. and Wilson, R., (2006) Healthy Democracy: The Future of Involvement in Health and Social Care. London: Involve/NCI.
    Andreasen, A. R., (2002) ‘Marketing social marketing in the social change marketplace’, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 21: 3–13.
    APHO (Association of Public Health Observatories) (2005) Indications of Public Health in the English Regions 4: Ethnicity and Health. London: APHO.
    Armstrong, D., (1993). ‘From clinical gaze to a regime of total’Health Education Journal, 52(3): 114–19.
    Armstrong, D., (1995) ‘The rise of surveillance medicine’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 17(3): 393–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10933329
    Aronson, J. K., (2007) ‘Compliance, concordance, adherence’, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(4): 383–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02893.x
    Ashton, A. and Seymour, H., (1992) The New Public Health. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789698604500315
    Association of Public Health Observatories (2005) Indications of Public Health in the English Regions 4: Ethnicity and Health. London: APHO.
    Asthana, S. and Halliday, J., (2006) What Works in Tackling Health Inequalities? Pathways, Policies and Practice through the Lifecourse. Bodmin: Policy Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861346742.001.0001
    Atkins, C. and Louw, G., (2000) ‘Reclaiming knowledge: a case for evidence based information systems’. Paper presented at the European Conference on Information Systems.
    Australia. State of the Environment Committee (2001) Australian State of the Environment 2001: Independent Report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2007, from http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2001/publications/report/index.html
    Baggott, R., (2000) Public Health: Policy and Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0966-0410.2001.00281x
    Baker, D., Mead, N. and Cambell, S., (2002) ‘Inequalities in morbidity and consulting behaviour for socially vulnerable groups’, British Journal of General Practice, 52(475): 124–30.
    Bakewell, J., (2004) Just70. Retrieved 23 July 2007, from http://society.guardian.co.uk/health/comment
    Bandolier, (2000) ‘What is critical appraisal’. Retrieved 20 March 2007, from http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/painres/download/whatis/What_is_critical_appraisal.pdf
    Bandura, A., (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action. A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Barlow, J., Turner, A. P. and Wright, C. C., (2000) Self-management Literature Review. Coventry: Coventry University.
    Barnes, R., Nelson, P. and Stanton, J., (2004) Delivering a New Wembley: Health Impact Assessment. London: Brent Teaching Primary Care Trust.
    Barton, J. and Parry-Jones, W., (2004) ‘Adolescence’, in R.Detels, J.McEwan, R.Beaglehole and H.Tanaka (eds), Oxford Textbook of Public Health,
    4th edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1623–38.
    BBC News (2007) Scots Smoke Ban ‘Improved Health’. Retrieved 10 December 2007, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/edinburgh_and_east/6986554.stm
    Beaglehole, R., (2004) ‘Determinants of health and disease: overview and framework’, in R.Detels, J.McEwan, R.Beaglehole and H.Tanaka (eds), Oxford Textbook of Public Health,
    4th edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Beaglehole, R. and Bonita, R., (1997) ‘Reinvigorating public health’, Lancet, 56(9232): 787–8.
    Beaglehole, R., Bonita, R. and Kjellstron, T., (1993) Basic Epidemiology. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1992.tb00210.x
    Beck, U., (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.
    Beck, U., (1995) Ecological Politics in an Age of Risk. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Belbin, R. M., (1993) Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth Heinmann.
    Bell, S. J., Airaksinen, M. S., Lyles, A., Chen, T. F. and Aslani, P., (2007) ‘Concordance is not synonymous with compliance or adherence’ (Letters to the Editor), British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 64(5): 710–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02971_1.x
    Benenson, A., (1995) Control of Communicable Diseases Manual,
    16th edn.
    Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
    Bennett, P. and Calman, K., (1999) Risk Communication and Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199562848.001.0001
    Bentall, P. R., (2003) Madness Explained: Understanding Psychosis and the Human Condition. London: Penguin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2005.09.026
    Berg, R., (2005a) ‘Environmental health and the media, part 1: overcoming shark phobias’, Journal of Environmental Health, 68(4): 40–9.
    Berg, R., (2005b) ‘Environmental health and the media, part 2: beyond get the message out/put the fires out’, Journal of Environmental Health, 68(5): 36–44.
    Bergman-Evans, B., (2006) ‘AIDES to improving medication adherence in older adults’, Geriatric Nursing, 27: 174–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2006.03.003
    Bibbings, R., (2007) ‘Risk education’, The RoSPA Occupational Safety and Health Journal, 37(5): 62–3.
    Bird, W., (2004) Natural Fit. Can Green Space and Biodiversity Increase Levels of Physical Activity? (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds). Retrieved 10 December 2007, from http://www.rspb.org.uk/Images/natural_fit_full_version_tcm9-133055.pdf
    Black, D., (1980) Inequalities in Health: Report of a Research Working Group. Retrieved 20 August 2007, from http://www.sochealth.co.uk/history/black.htm
    Blair, M., Stewart-Brown, S., Waterson, T. and Crowther, R., (2004) Child Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Blows, W. T., (2003) The Biological Basis of Nursing: Mental Health. London: Roudedge.
    Bolden, R., Gosling, R., Marturano, A. and Dennison, P., (2003) A Review of Leadership Theory and Competency Frameworks. Exeter: University of Exeter, Centre for Leadership Studies.
    Bongaarts, J. and Griffith, F., (1998) ‘On the quantum and tempo of fertility’, Population Fertility Review, 24(2): 271–91.
    Bourdieu, P., (1984) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Boyd, N. R. and Windsor, R. A., (2003) ‘Formative evaluation in maternal and child health practice: The partners for life nutrition education program for pregnant women’, Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(2): 137–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023873112024
    Bradley, P. and Burls, A., (2002) Ethics in Public and Community Health. London: Routledge.
    Bradshaw, J., (1972) ‘The concept of social need’, New Society, 19(469): 640–2.
    Braveman, P. and Gruskin, S., (2003) ‘Poverty, equity, human rights and health’, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 81: 7. Retrieved 20 December 2007, from http://www.scielosp.org
    Breinbauer, C. and Maddaleno, M., (2005) Youth Choices and Changes: Promoting Healthy Behaviours in Adolescents. Washington: WHO.
    Bridges, W., (2004) Transitions: Making Sense of Life's Changes,
    2nd edn.
    New York: Addison-Wesley.
    The British Liver Trust (1999) Living a Healthy Life with Long Term Illness. The Board of Trustees. Leland Stanford Junior University: The Board of Trustees.
    Bronfenbrenner, U., (1979) The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brown, J., Shassere, E. and Sengupta, S., (2005) Health in Regional Public Policy: Using Assessment Techniques to Improve the Impact of Policy on Health. Stockton-on-Tees: Health Development Agency/University of Durham.
    Bryant, L. L., Corbett, K. K. and Kutner, J. S., (2001) ‘In their own words: a model of healthy aging’, Social Science and Medicine, 53(7): 927–41.
    Brynner, J., (2005) ‘Rethinking the youth phase of the life-course: the case for emerging adulthood?’, Journal of Youth Studies, 8(4): 367–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13676260500431628
    Buchanan, D. R., (2000) An Ethic for Health Promotion. Rethinking the Sources of Human Wellbeing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bunton, R., Murphy, S. and Bennet, P., (1991) ‘Theories of behaviour change and their use in health promotion: some neglected areas’, Health Education Research, 6(2): 153–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/6.2.153
    Burgon, C., (2007) ‘Introduction to the Expenditure and Food Survey’, Nutrition Bulletin, 32: 283–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2007.00647.x
    Buss, D., (1998) ‘Registered Public Health Nutritionist (RPHNutr): a new qualification in public health nutrition.’, Nutrition and Food Science, 98(3).
    Buttriss, J., Stanner, S., McKevithB., Nugent, A. P., Kelly, C., Phillips, K. and Theobald, H. E., (2004) ‘Successful ways to modify food choice: lessons from the literature’, Nutrition Bulletin, 29(4): 333–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2004.00462.x
    Cairns, J., (1995) ‘The costs of prevention’, British Medical Journal, 311(1520): 1–5
    Caraher, M., Dixon, P., Lang, T. and Carr-Hill, R., (1999) ‘The state of cooking in England: The relationship of cooking skills to food choice’, British Food Journal, 101(8): 590–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070709910288289
    Carter, N., (2001) ‘Understanding sustainable development’. Retrieved 8 February 2008, from http://www.fathom.com/course/21701763/session1.html
    Castel, R., (1991) ‘From dangerousness to risk’, in G.Burchell, C.Gordon and P.Miller (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Brighton: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Casting for Recovery (2008) Casting for Recovery. Retrieved 3 April 2008, from http://www.castingforrecovery.org.uk
    Cattan, M., (2006) Mental Health Promotion: A Life Span Approach. London: Open University.
    Caulfield, H., (2006) Accountability Vital Notes for Nurses. Oxford: Blackwell.
    CCDC in America (2007) The State of Aging and Health in America 2007. Retrieved 23 June 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/Aging/pdf/saha_2007.pdf
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. Recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Atlanta, GA: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002) ‘General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization practices and the American Academy of Family Physicians’, MMWR, 51(2): 1–2
    Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) CRD Report 4,
    2nd edn.
    York: CRD.
    Centre for Urban and Community Research (2005) Investors in Communities: Final Evaluation Report on Pilot Phase. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Chen, H. T., (2005) Practical Programme Evaluation. London: Sage.
    Clark, N. and McLeroy, K., (1998) ‘Reviewing the evidence for health promotion in the United States’, in J. K.Davies and G.Macdonald (eds), Quality, Evidence and Effectiveness in Health Promotion. London: Routledge. pp. 21–46.
    Cohen, B. E. and Reutter, L., (2007) ‘Development of the role of public health nurses in addressing child and family poverty: a framework for action’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(1), 96–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04154.x
    Coleman, J. and Hendry, L., (1999) The Nature of Adolescence,
    3rd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    COMEAP (2006) Cardiovascular Disease and Air Pollution. A Report by the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants, chairman, J.G. Ayres. Retrieved 1 August 2007, from http://www.advisorybodies.doh.gov.uk/comeap/statementsreports/CardioDisease.pdf
    Cooner, R. F., Tanjasiri, S. P., Dempsey, C. L., Robles, G., Davidson, M. B. and Easterling, D. V., (2003) ‘The Colorado Healthy Communities Initiative: Communities defining and addressing health’, in D. V.Easterling, K. M.Gallagher and D. G.Lodwick (eds), Promoting Health at the Community Level. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232591
    Cooper, H. and Geyer, R., (2007) Riding the Diabetes Rollercoaster: A New Approach for Health Professionals, Patients and Carers. Oxford: Radcliffe.
    Copp, L. A., (1986) ‘The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 11: 255–63.
    Costello, J. and Haggart, M., (2003) Public Health and Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Cote, S. and Healy, T., (2001) Indications of Public Health in the English Regions 7: Mental Health North East Public Health Observatory (NEPHO) and the National Mental Health Observatory (MHO). York: Association of Public Health Observatories (APHO).
    Coughlin, S. S., (2006) ‘Ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice’, Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 3: 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-7622-3-16
    Coulter, A., (2006) ‘Patient engagement: why is it important?’, in E.Andersson, J.Tritter and R.Wilson (eds), Healthy Democracy: The Future of Involvement in Health and Social Care. London: Involve/NCI.
    Coyle, D. and Davies, L., (1996) ‘How to Assess Cost-Effectiveness: Elements of a sound economic evaluation’, in M. F.Drummond and A.Maynard (eds), Purchasing and Providing Cost-Effective Health Care. London: Churchill Livingstone, pp. 66–79.
    Crisp, R., (1998) ‘Ethics’, in E.Craig (ed.), Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge.
    Crombie, I., (1996) The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal. London: Sage.
    Crone, D., Johnston, L. and Grant, T., (2004) ‘Maintaining quality in exercise referral schemes: a case study of professional practice’, Primary Healthcare Research, 5: 1–7
    Cummins, S. and Macintyre, S., (2002) ‘A systematic study of an urban foodscape: the price and availability of food in greater Glasgow’, Urban Studies, 39: 2115–2130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098022000011399
    Curtis, S., (2004) Health and Inequality. London: Sage.
    Dahlgren, G. and Whitehead, M., (1991) Policies and Strategies to Promote Social Equity in Health. Stockholm: Institute of Future Studies.
    Dallongeville, J., Helbecque, N., Cottel, D., Amoulyel, P. and Meirhaeghe, A., (2003) ‘The Gly16-Arg16 and Gln27-Glu27 polymorphisms of beta2-adrenergic receptor are associated with metabolic syndrome in men’, Journal of Clinical Endocrinol Metab, 88: 4862–4866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-030173
    Darmon, N., Coupel, J., Deheeger, M. and Briend, A., (2002) ‘Dietry inadequacies observed in homeless men visiting an emergency night shelter in Paris’, Public Health Nutrition, 4: 155–161.
    Davidoff, F., Haynes, B., Sackett, D. and Smith, R., (1995) ‘Evidence based medicine’, British Medical Journal, 310: 1085–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6987.1085
    Davies, M. and Macdowall, W., (2006) Health Promotion Theory. Maidenhead Open University Press.
    Davies, P., (1999) ‘What is evidence based education?’British Journal of Educational Studies, 41(2): 108–21.
    Davis, T. C., (1993) ‘Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument’, Family Medicine, 25: 391–5.
    Davison, C., Davey Smith, G. and Frankel, S., (1991) ‘Lay epidemiology and the prevention paradox: the implications of coronary candidacy for health education’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 13(1): 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.1991.tb00085.x
    Dawson, K. A., Schneider, M. A., Fletcher, P. C. and Bryden, P. J., (2007) ‘Examining gender differences in the health behaviours of Canadian university students’, J R Soc Health, 127(1): 38–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1466424007073205
    DCMS/Strategy Unit (2002) Came Plan: A Strategy for Delivering Government's Sport and Physical Activity Objectives. London: Cabinet Office.
    DeBell, D., (ed.), (2007) Public Health Practice and the School Age Population. London: Hodder Arnold.
    Deeny, P. and McFetridge, B., (2005) ‘The impact of disaster on culture, self and identity: increased awareness by healthcare professionals is needed’, Nursing Clinics of North America, 40(3): 431–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2005.04.012
    Deeny, P., Davies, K., Gillespie, M. and Spencer, W., (2007) ‘Global issues in disaster relief nursing’, in T. G.Veenema (ed.), Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Terrorism and Other Hazards. New York: Springer.
    De Irala-Estevez, J., Groth, M. J. L., Olstersdorf, U., Prattala, R. and Martinez-Gonzalez, M., (2000) ‘A systematic review of socioe-economic differences in food habits in Europe: consumption of fruit and vegetables’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54: 706–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601080
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) (2007a) Care Matters: Transforming the Lives of Children and Young People in Care. London: DfES.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (2007b) The Children's Plan: Building Brighter Futures. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dfes.gov.uk/publications/childrensplan/downloads/The_Childrens_Plan.pdf
    Devaney, B., Schochet, P., Thornton, C., Fasciano, N. and Gavin, A., (1993) Evaluating the Effects of School Health Interventions on School Performance: Design Report. Princton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Reseach.
    DfES (1999) National Healthy Schools Standard Guidance. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.wiredforhealth.gov.uk/PDF/Brochurenew.pdf
    DfES (2003) Every Child Matters: Next Step. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dfes.gov.uk/everychildmatters/pdfs/EveryChild
    DfES (2005) Common Assessment Framework for Children and Young People. London: DfES.
    DfES (2005) Youth Matters Green Paper. Retrieved 24 March 2008, from http://www.dfes.gov.uk/consultations/downloadableDocs/Youth%20mattters%20pdf.pdf
    DfES (2007a) Care Matters: Time for Change. London: DfES.
    DfES (2007b) The Children's Plan: Building Brighter Future. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dfes.gov.uk/publications/childrensplan/downloads/The_Childrens_Plan.pdf
    Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG) (1996) The Housing Act 1996. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Education and Skills (2003) Change for Children. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dfes.gov.uk/everychildmatters
    DH (Department of Health) (1984) The Public Health (Control of Disease) Act. London: Department of Health.
    DH (1987) Promoting Better Health: Command No. 249. London: Department of Health.
    DH (1988) Griffiths Report: Community Care: Agenda for Action (The Griffiths Community Care Report). London: HSMO.
    The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulations (1988).
    DH (1992) The Health of the Nation - A Strategy for Health in England. London: HSM.
    DH (1997) The New NHS: Modern, Dependable. London: Department of Health.
    DH (1998a) Our Healthier Nation. London: The Stationery Office.
    DH (1998b) Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain: The Government's Ten Year Strategy for Tackling Drug Misuse. London: Department of Health.
    DH (1998c) Making a Difference: Strengthening the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Contribution to Health and Healthcare. Retrieved December 19 2007, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4074704.pdf
    DH (1999) The National Service Framework for Mental Health: Modern Standards and Service Models. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2000a) Access to Mainstream Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Programmes. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2000b) The NHS Plan: A Plan for Investment, A Plan for Reform. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2000c) Coronary Heart Disease: National Service Framework for Coronary Heart Disease: Modern Standards and Service Models. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2001a) Exercise Referral Systems: A National Quality Assurance Framework. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2001b) Making it Happen. A Guide to Delivering Mental Health Promotion. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2001c) National Service Framework for Older People. Retrieved 6 January 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4003066
    DH (2001d) The National Service Framework for Diabetes. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2001e) UK Guidance on Best Practice in Vaccine Administration. London: Shire Hall Communications.
    DH (2002) Getting Ahead of the Curve: A Strategy for Infectious Diseases. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003a) Taking a Public Health Approach in the Workplace. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003b) Chief Medical Office Letter: (PL/CMO/2003/1) Planned Hib Vaccination Catch-up Campaign. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003c) Fast-Forwarding Primary Care Mental Health ‘Gateway’ Workers. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003d) Liberating the Public Health Talents of Community Practitioners and Health Visitors. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003e) Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Support, Time and Recovery (STR) Workers. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2003f) Tackling Health Inequalities: A Programme for Action. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2004a) At Least Five a Week: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity and its Relationship to Health: A Report from the Chief Medical Officer. London: The Stationery Office.
    DH (2004b) Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2004c) Health, Work and Wellbeing: A Strategy for the Health and Wellbeing of Working Age People. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2004d) National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Healthcare/NationalServiceFrameworks/ChildrenServices
    DH (2004e) Taking a Public Health Approach in the Workplace. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2005a) Commissioning a Patient-led NHS. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2005b) Delivering Choosing Our Health: Making Healthier Choices Easier. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2005c) Health Protection in the 21st Century: Understanding the Burden of Disease. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2005d) National Healthy Schools Status: Guide for School. Retrieved 20 January 2007, from http://www.wiredforhealth.gov.uk
    DH (2006a) The Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act: Publications Legislation Section. Retrieved 21 January 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsLegislation/DH_076445
    DH (2006b) The Expert Patients Programme. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2006c) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease National Service Framework. Retrieved 6 March, 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Healthcare/NationalServiceFrameworks/DH_4138532
    DH (2006d) Diabetes Commissioning Toolkit. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2006e) Our Health, Our Care, Our Say: A New Direction for Community Services. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2006f) Essence of Care Benchmarks for Promotion of Health. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2006g) Transition: Getting it Right for Young People: Improving the Transition of Young People with Long Term Conditions from Children's to Adult Health Services. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2007a) Consultation on Changing the Age of Sale for Tobacco: Report on Consultation. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2007b) Partnerships for Better Health. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2007c) Analysis of the National Childhood Obesity Database 2005–06. Retrieved 10 December 2007, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_063565
    DH (2007d) Commissioning Framework for Health and Wellbeing. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2007e) Facing the Future: The Governments' Response. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2007f) Review of Parts II, V and VI of the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984: Report on Consultation (Department of Health). Retrieved 21 June 2007, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Consultations/Responsestoconsultations/DH_080384
    DH (2007g) World Class Commissioning. London: Department of Health.
    DH (2008a) The Child Health Promotion Programme: Pregnancy and the First Five Years. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/DH_083645
    DH (2008b) Expanding the Psychological Therapies Workforce. Retrieved 21 March 2008, from http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/News/Recentstories/DH_083176
    DHSS (Department of Health and Social Security) (1942) Beveridge Report – Social Insurance and Allied Services. London: HSMO.
    DHSS (1976) Prevention and Health: Everybody's Business. London: DHSS.
    DHSS (1987) Promoting Better Health. London: HSMO.
    DHSS (1988) Community Care: Agenda for Action. London: DHSS.
    Department of Minerals and Energy (2003) White Paper on the Renewable Energy Policy of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria: Department of Minerals and Energy.
    Department of Minerals and Energy (1998) White Paper on the Renewable Energy Policy of the Republic of South Africa. Cape Town: Department of Minerals and Energy.
    Dickersin, K. and Min, Y. I., (1993) ‘Publication bias: the problem that won't go away’, Ann N Y Acad Sci, 703: 135–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb26343.x
    Di Gallo, A., Barton, J. and Parry-Jones, W. L. I., (1997) ‘Road traffic accidents: early psychological consequences in children and adolescents’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 170: 358–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.170.4.358
    Disability Discrimination Act (1996) The Disability Discrimination Act: Analysis of Data from the ONS Omnibus Survey 1996–2006.
    Dolan, F. E., (1994) Dangerous Familiars – Representation of Domestic Crime in England 1550–1700. London: Cornell University Press
    Donaldson, L. J. and Donaldson, R. J., (2003) Essential Public Health. London: Petroc Press.
    Dowler, E. and Calvert, C., (1995) Nutrition and Diet in Lone-parent Families in London. London: Family Policy Study Centre for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Drummond, M., Cooke, J. and Walley, T., (1997) ‘Economic evaluation under managed competition: Evidence form the UK’, Social Science and Medicine, 45(4): 583–95.
    Dubois, L. and Girard, M., (2001) ‘Social position and nutrition: A gradient relationship in Canada and the USA’, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55: 366–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601165
    Dugdill, L., Graham, R. and McNair, F., (2005) ‘Exercise referral: the public health panacea for physical activity promotion? A critical perspective of exercise referral schemes; their development and evaluation’, Ergonoimics, 48(11): 1390–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140130500101544
    Dunstan, D. W., Zimmet, P. A. O., Slade, R., Harper, S. and Burke, L., (2003) Diabetes and Physical Activity. (International Diabetes Institute). Retrieved 26 November 2007, from http://www.dav.org.au/docs/pdfs/20041122115847.pdf
    Earle, S., (2007) ‘Promoting public health: exploring the issues’, in S.Earle (ed.), Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage.
    Earle, S., Lloyd, C. E., Sidell, M. and Spurr, S., (2007) Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage.
    Earle, S., Sidell, M. and Spurr, S., (2007) Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage.
    Easterling, D. V., Gallagher, K. M. and Lodwick, D. G., (2003) Promoting Health at the Community Level. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232591
    Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) (2002) InphoRM 1: Introduction to Health Equity Audit. Cambridge: ERPHO.
    Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) (2006) Briefing 14: Assessing, Measuring and Monitoring Local Health Inequalities. Cambridge: ERPHO.
    Ebrahim, S., (2005) ‘Health of elderly people’, in R.Detels, J.McEwen, R.Beaglehole and H.Tanaka (eds), Oxford Textbook of Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Economic and Social Research Council (2004) Participation and Democracy: A Health Check for British Democracy. Swindon: ESRC Publications.
    Efstathiou, A., Grant, D. and Maxwell, S. M., (2004) ‘The ownership and use of small kitchen domestic appliances: case study, Liverpool’, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 28(3): 305–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2004.00353.x
    Ekman, I., Schaufelberger, M., Kjellgren, I., Swedberg, K. and Granger, B., (2007) ‘Standard medication information is not enough: poor concordance of patient and nurse perceptions’, The Authors Journal Compilation, 60(2): 181–6.
    El Ansari, W., (2003) ‘Educational partnerships for health: do stakeholders perceive similar outcomes?’Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 9(2): 136–56.
    El Ansari, W. and Phillips, C. J., (2001a) ‘Empowering healthcare workers in Africa: partnerships in health – beyond the rhetoric towards a model’, Critical Public Health, 11(3): 231–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09581590110066676
    El Ansari, W. and Phillips, C. J., (2001b) ‘Interprofessional collaboration: a stakeholder approach to evaluation of voluntary participation in community partnerships’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 15(4): 351–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820120080481
    El Ansari, W. and Phillips, C., (2004) ‘The costs and benefits of participants in community partnerships. A paradox?’Health Promotion Practice, 5(1): 35–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839903258066
    El Ansari, W., Phillips, C. J. and Hammick, M., (2001) ‘Collaboration and partnerships: developing the evidence base’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 9(4): 215–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0966-0410.2001.00299.x
    El Ansari, W., Phillips, C. J. and Zwi, A. B., (2002) ‘Narrowing the gap between academic professional wisdom and community lay knowledge: partnerships in South Africa’, Public Health, 116(3): 151–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ph.1900839
    El Ansari, W., Phillips, C. J. and Zwi, A. B., (2004) ‘Collaboration in health: public health nurses' perspectives’, Public Health Nursing, 21(3): 278–87.
    El Ansari, W., Maxwell, A., Stock, C., Mikolajczyk, R., Naydenova, V. and Krämer, A., (2007a) ‘Nurse involvement in international research collaborations’, Nursing Standard, 21(6): 35–40.
    El Ansari, W., Maxwell, A. E., Mikolajczyk, R. T., Stock, C., Naydenova, V. and Krämer, A., (2007b) ‘Promoting public health: benefits and challenges of a European wide research consortium on student health’, Central European Journal for Public Health, 15(2): 58–65.
    Ellis, R. and Hogard, E., (2006) ‘The Trident: a three pronged method for evaluating clinical, social and educational innovations’, Evaluation, 12(3): 372–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1356389006069140
    Endacott, R., (1997) Clarifying the concept of need: a comparison of two approaches to concept analysis', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25: 471–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.1997025471.x
    Engelke, M. and Engelke, S., (1992) ‘Predictors of the home environment of high-risk infants’, Journal of Community Health Nursing, 91(3): 171–18.
    Enthoven, A., (1985) Reflections on the Management of the NHS. Oxford: Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trusts.
    Ewles, L. and Simnett, I., (2003) Promoting Health: A Practical Guide. London: Bailliere Tindall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1990.tb01275.x
    Eyler, A., Baker, E., Cromer, L., King, A. and Brown, D., (1997) ‘Physical activity and minority women: a qualitative approach’, Health Education and Behaviour, 25: 640–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500510
    Falk-Rafael, A., (2005) ‘Speaking truth to power: nursing's legacy and moral imperative’, Advances in Nursing Science, 28(3): 212–23.
    Fendrick, A., Javitt, J. C. and Chiang, Y. P., (1992) ‘Cost-effectiveness of the screening and treatment of diabetic retinopathy’, International Journal of Technology Assessment in Healthcare, 8(4): 694–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266462300002385
    Fernando, S., (2003) ‘Culture and ethnicity’, in B.Hannigan and M.Coffey (eds), The Handbook of Community Mental Health Nursing. London: Routledge.
    Ferner, R. E., (2003) ‘Is concordance the primrose path to health?’ Editorial in British Medical Journal, 327: 821–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7419.821
    Field, J., (2003) Social Capital. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861346551.001.0001
    Field, J., (2008) Social Capital,
    2nd edn.
    London: Routledge.
    Firth, S., (2005) Staying in or Standing Out. London: Sage.
    Fitzpatrick, M., (2001) The Tyranny of Health: Doctors and the Regulation of Lifestyle. London:
    Fitzpatrick, M., (2004) ‘From “nanny state” to “therapeutic state”’, British Journal of General Practice, 54(505): 645.
    Flaskerud, J. and Winsow, B., (1998) ‘Conceptualizing vulnerable populations: health based research’, Nursing Research, 47: 69–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-199803000-00005
    Fleming, P., (2007) ‘Public health: social context and action’, in A.Scriven and S.Garmen (eds), Public Health. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Fleming, P., Blair, P., Bacon, C., Bensley, D., Smith, I., Taylor, E., et al., (1996) ‘Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the sudden infant death syndrome: results of 1993–1995 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy’, British Medical Journal, 313(7051): 191–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7051.191
    Food Standards Agency (2002) COT (Non-food) Statement on the Study by the Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU) on Health Outcomes in Populations Living Around Landfill Sites. Retrieved 8 August 2007, from http://www.food.gov.uk/science/ouradvisors/toxicity/statements/cotstatements2002/sahsulandfill
    Foucault, M. (ed.), (1991) Govemmentality. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    French, J. and Blair-Stevens, C., (2006) It's Our Health! Realising the Potential of Social Marketing. London: National Consumer Council of Social Marketing.
    Friis, R. H. and Sellers, T. A., (2004) Epidemiology for Public Health Practice,
    3rd edn.
    Boston: Jones and Bartlett.
    Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. and Marshall, S., (2000) A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. London: Kogan Page.
    Galazka, A., (1993) The Immunological Basis for Immunization. Module 1: General Immunology. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    Garmen, S., (2007) Public Health: Social Context and Action. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Gibney, M. J. and Nutrition Society, (2004) Public Health Nutrition. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Gibson, A. (ed.), (2007) ‘Does social capital have a role to play in the health of communities?’ in Douglas et al. (eds), A Reader in Promoting Public Health – Challenge and Controversy. London: Sage.
    Giddens, A., (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    Gill, T., (2005) ‘If you go down to the woods today: even today's current breed of battery-reared, celebrity-fed, techno-kids would, given the chance, rather be outside than stuck indoors surfing the net. Isn't it time we had the courage to let them go?’, Ecologist, 35(8): 62–9.
    Giskes, K., Turrell, G., Patterson, C. and Newman, B., (2002) Socio-economic differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among Australian adolescents and adults', Public Health Nutrition, 5: 663–9.
    Goede, H. and El Ansari, W., (2003) Partnership Work: the Health Service-Community Interface for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of HIV/AIDS Report of a WHO Consultation 5–6 December 2002. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-03655-2_77
    Goffman, E., (1961) Stigma – Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
    Goldenburg, M. J., (2005) ‘Evidence-based ethics? On evidence-based practice and the empirical turn from normative ethics’, Medical Ethics, 6: 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6939-6-11
    Goodman, E., Hinden, B. and Khandelwal, S., (2000) ‘Accuracy of teen and parental reports of obesity and body mass index’, Paediatrics, 106: 52–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.106.1.52
    Goodman, J., (2002) Moral panic: HIV and AIDS. Retrieved 28 June 2007, from http://www.joelgoodman.co.uk/files/pdfs/moralpanic.pdf
    Gordis, L., (2005) Epidemiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier.
    Gordon, D. et al. (eds), (1999) Inequalities in Health: The Evidence. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Gordon, M., (2002) ‘Illiteracy in rheumatoid arthritis patients as determined by the rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine (REALM) score’, Rheumatology, 41: 750–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/41.7.750
    Gorsky, M., (2007) ‘Local leadership in public health: the role of the medical officer of health in Britain, 1872–1974’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61: 468–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2006.046326
    Gostin, L. O., (2000) Public Health Law: Power, Duty and Restraint. New York: University of California Press.
    Gostin, L. O., (2002) Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader. New York: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3528516
    Graham, H., (1993) Hardship and Health in Women's Lives in Hemel Hempstead. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Graham, H. and Kelly, M., (2004) Health Inequalities: Concepts, Frameworks and Policy. London: Health Development Agency.
    Gray, M., (2004) ‘Evidence-based policy making’, British Medical Journal, 329: 988–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7473.988
    Green, L. and Kreuter, M., (1999) Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach,
    3rd edn.
    Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Greenhalgh, T., (2006) How to Read a Paper: Getting your Bearings,
    3rd edn.
    London: British Medical Journal.
    Griffin, J., Arif, S. and Mufti, A., (2003) Immunology and Haematology. London: Mosby.
    Griffiths, S. and Hunter, D., (2007) New Perspectives in Public Health,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Radcliffe.
    Grundy, E., (2004) Demography and Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199218707.003.0044
    Guardian, (2007a) Smoking Ban Brings Big Cut in Heart Attacks in Scotland, Study Finds. Retrieved 8 March 2008, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/sep/11/health.smoking
    Guardian, (2007b) ‘Knowing what is best’ (Leader), The Guardian, 3 July.
    Guyatt, G. and Rennie, D., (2002) Users' Guide to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-based Clinical Practice. Chicago: AMA Press.
    Hall, D. and Elliman, D., (2006) Health for all Children. Oxford: University of Oxford Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.67.5.665-b
    Hallfors, D., Cho, H., Livert, D. and Kadushin, C., (2002) ‘Fighting back against substance abuse: are community coalitions winning?’American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(4): 237–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900511-1
    Hammond, J., Brodie, D. and Bundred, P., (1997) ‘Exercise on prescription: guidelines for health professionals’, Health Promotion International, 12(1): 33–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/12.1.33
    Hancock, H. and Campbell, S., (2006) ‘Impact of the Leading an Empowered Organisation Programme’, Nursing Standards, 20(19): 41–8.
    Harland, J., White, M., Drinkwater, C., Chinn, D., Farr, L. and Howel, D., (1999) ‘The Newcastle exercise project: a randomised controlled trial of methods to promote physical activity in primary care’, British Medical Journal, 319: 828–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.319.7213.828
    Harris, J., (1998) Manchester: Centre for Social Ethics and Policy, University of Manchester as cited in NHS London Health ObservatoryBriefing on Water Fluoridation for London SHA and PCT CEs and DsPH. Retrieved June 13 2007, from http://www.lho.org.uk/HIL/Determinants_Of_Health/Environment/Fluoridation.aspx#reports
    Harris, J., (2005) Double Trouble: Combining Research and Development. 11th International Conference on Qualitative Evidence in Health Care. Uttrech, Holland.
    Harrison, L., (1999) Student Mental Health. Retrieved 14 November 2007, from http://www.brookes.ac.uk
    Harrison, S. and Mort, M., (1998) ‘Which champions, which people? public and user involvement in healthcare as a technology of legitimation’, Social Policy and Administration, 32(1): 60–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00086
    Harrison, S., Dowswell, G. and Milewa, T., (2002) ‘Public and user “involvement” in the UK National Health Service’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 10(2): 63–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2002.00342.x
    Hasler, F., (2006) ‘Partners in participation? Involving people who use social care services’, in E.Andersson, J.Tritter and R.Wilson (eds), Healthy Democracy: The Future of Involvement in Health and Social Care. London: Involve/NCI.
    Hastings, G., (2007) Social Marketing: The Potential. London: Butterworth-Heinenmann. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15245004.1997.9960986
    Hawtin, M., Hughes, G. and Percy-Smith, J., (1999) Community Profiling: Auditing Social Needs. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Health Communication Unit (2007) Health Communication. Retrieved 20 March 2008, from http://www.thcu.ca/infoandresources/health_communication.htm
    Health Protection Agency Act 2004 424, c41–71 Cong. Rec. pp. 1–88 (2004).
    Health Protection Agency (2007) Chemical Hazards and Poison Division. Retrieved 31 July 2007, from http://hpa.org.uk/chemicals/default.htm
    Health and Safety at Work etc Act (HSWA) 1974, Health and Safety Executive SI 1974/1439 (1974).
    Health and Safety Executive (2004) Worker Involvement in Health and Safety Management. HSE: London.
    Health and Safety Executive (2004a). Managing Absence in the Public Sector. London: Health and Safety Executive
    Health and Safety Executive (2007) Health and Safety Statistics 2006/2007. HSE: London.
    Health and Social Care Bill (2007) Health and Social Care Bill. Retrieved June 12 2008, from http://www.commonsleader.gov.uk/output/page2030.asp#
    Hearns, A. and Deeny, P., (2007) ‘The value of support for aid workers in complex emergencies: a phenomenological study’, Disaster Management and Response, 5(2): 28–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmr.2007.03.003
    Helbert, M., (2006) Flesh and Bones of Immunology. London: Mosby.
    Henderson, L., Gregory, J. and Swan, G., (2002) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Ages 19 to 64 Years. Volume 1 Types and Quantities of Foods Consumed. London: The Stationery Office.
    Hewitt, M. and Percy-Smith, J., (2007) Community Profiling: A Practical Guide,
    2nd edn.
    Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Hill, A. and Spittlehouse, C., (2003) What is Critical Appraisal? Vol 3, number 2. Hayward Medical Communications, from http://www.evidence-based-medicine.co.uk
    Hillsdon, M., Foster, C., Naidoo, B. and Crombie, H., (2004) The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions for Increasing Physical Activity among Adults: A Review of Reviews. London: Department of Health.
    Hivert, M. F., Langlois, M. F., Bérard, P., Cuerrier, J. P. and Carpentier, A. C., (2007) ‘Prevention of weight gain in young adults through a seminar-based intervention program’, International Journal of Obesity, 31(8): 1262–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803572
    HM Treasury (2002) Securing our Future: Taking a Long-term View. London: HM Treasury.
    HM Treasury (2004) Securing Good Health for the Whole Population. London: HM Treasury.
    Holland, W. W., Stewart, S. and Masseria, C., (2006) Policy Brief: Screening in Europe. Retrieved 13 December 2007, from http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E88698.pdf
    Holroyd, G., (2002) ‘Partnerships and collaborations: the promise of participation’, in L.Jones, M.Sidell and J.Douglas (eds), The Challenge of Promoting Health: Exploration and Action. Basingstoke: Macmillan/Open University.
    Home Office (2005) Domestic Violence: A National Report. London: Home Office.
    Hooper, J. and Longworth, P., (2002) Health Needs Assessment Workbook. London: Health Development Agency.
    Horne, R., (2006) ‘Compliance, adherence and concordance: implications for asthma treatment’, Chest, 130(1): 65–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.130.1_suppl.65S
    The Human Rights Act 1998, Home Office (1998).
    Hunter, D. J., (2003) Public Health Policy. Cambridge: Polity Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/253431
    IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) (2001) World Disasters Report 2001: Focus on Recovery. Geneva: IFRC.
    IFRC (2005) World Disasters Report 2005: Focus on Information. Geneva: IFRC.
    Illich, I., (1976) Limits to Medicine: Medical Nemesis: the Expropriation of Health. London: Marion Boyars.
    Institute for Volunteering Research (2004) Volunteering for All: Exploring the Link between Volunteering and Social Exclusion. London: Institute for Volunteering Research.
    Involve (2005) People and Participation: How to Put Citizens at the Heart of Decision-making. London: Involve.
    Jackson, S. F., Cleverly, S., Poland, B., Robertson, A., Burman, D., Goodstadt, M. and Salsberg, L., (1997) Half Full or Half Empty? Concepts and Research Design for a Study of Community Capacity. Ontario: City of North York Public Health Department Publishing.
    Janeway, C., Travers, P., Walport, M. and Shlomik, M., (2005) Immunobiology. London: Churchill Livingstone. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1246-7820%2801%2900160-4
    JefferyJ., (2006) ‘Governance for a sustainable future’, Journal of the Royal Institute of Public Health, 120: 604–8.
    Jenkins, S., (2007) ‘Nest the anti-smoking Guardianistas will be coming for dogs and cats’, The Guardian, 16 July.
    Jones, A., (2008) Applied Econometrics for Health Economists,
    2nd edn.
    London: Office of Health Economics.
    JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) (2005) The Older People's Inquiry: ‘That Little Bit of Elp’. Retrieved 16 December 2007, from http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/ebooks/briefing03.pdf
    Kals, E. and Montada, L., (1999) ‘Emotional affinity toward nature as a motivational basis to protect nature’, Environment and Behaviour, 31(2): 178–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00139169921972056
    Kassianos, G., (2001) Immunization: Childhood and Travel Health. Oxford: Blackwell Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470693841
    Katz, J., (1997) The Digital Citizen Survey. Conducted by the Luntz Research Company for Wired magazine and the Merrill Lynch Forum.
    Katz, J., Peberdy, A. and Douglas, J., (2000) Promoting Health Knowledge and Practice. London: The Open University.
    Katz, E. and Lazarsfeld, P., (1955) ‘Personal influence: the part played by people in the flow of mass communication’, in K.Tones and J.Green (eds), Health Promotion Planning and Strategies. London: Sage.
    Kelly, A. and Symonds, A., (2003) The Social Construction of Community Nursing. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Kendall, L., (2007) ‘Second thoughts: healthcare is failing those who most need it’, The Guardian, 28 November.
    Kendrick, T., Simons, L., Mynors-Wallis, L., Gray, A., Lathlean, J., Pickering, R. et al., (2006) ‘Cost-effectiveness of referral for generic care or problem-solving treatment from community mental health nurses, compared with usual general practitioner care for common mental disorders Randomised controlled trial’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 18(9): 50–59.
    Kennedy, A., Reeves, D., Bower, B., Lee, V., Middleton, E., Richardson, G. et al., (2007) ‘The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a national lay-led self care support programme for patients with long-term conditions: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61: 254–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2006.053538
    Kennedy, B. P., Kawachi, I., Glass, R. and Prothrow-Stith, D., (1998) ‘Income distribution, socioeconomic status and self-rated health in the United States: multilevel analysis’, British Medical Journal, 317: 917–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.317.7163.917
    Kennedy, E. T., Bowman, S. A. and Powell, R., (1999) ‘Dietary-fat intake in the US population’, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18(3): 207–12.
    Kennedy, I., (2001) Learning from Bristol: The Report of the Public Inquiry into Children's Heart Surgery at the Bristol. London: HMSO.
    Kennedy, L. and Ling, M. (eds), (1997) Nutrition Education for Low-income Groups – Is There a Role?Berlin: WZB.
    Kibble, A. J. and Saunders, P., (2001) ‘The public health significance of contaminated land’, in R.Hestor and R.Harrison (eds), Environmental Science and Technology, No. 16: Contaminated Land. London: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
    Kickbusch, I., (2001) ‘Health literacy: addressing the health and education divide’, Health Promotion International, 16(3): 289–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/16.3.289
    King, W. D., Darlington, G. and Kreiger, N., (1993) ‘Response of a cancer registry to reports of disease clusters’, British Journal of Cancer, 29: 1418–25.
    King's Fund (2004a). Public Attitudes to Public Health Policy. London: King's Fund.
    King's Fund (2004b) Leadership at the Point of Care. Retrieved 28 March 2008, from http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/current_projects/point_of_care/index.html
    Kinzie, W. R., (2005) ‘Instructional design strategies for health behaviour change’, Patient Education Council, 56: 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2004.02.005
    Kitzman, H., Olds, D., Sidora, K., Henderson, C., Hanks, C. and Cole, R., (2000) ‘Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: a 3 year follow up of a randomised trial’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(15): 1983–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.15.1983
    Kohler, L., (1998) ‘Child public health: a new basis for child health workers’, European Journal of Public Health, 8: 253–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/8.3.253
    Kotler, P. and Lee, N., (2006) Marketing in the Public Sector: A Roadmap for Improved Performance. London: Financial Times/Prentice-Hall.
    Kotler, P. and Zaltman, G., (1971) ‘Social marketing: an approach to planned social change’, Journal of Marketing, 35: 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1249783
    Kotler, P., Roberto, N. and Lee, N., (2002) Social Marketing. Improving the Quality of Life. California: Sage.
    Kralik, D., Price, K., Warren, J. and Koch, T., (2006) ‘Issues in data generation using e-mail group conversations for nursing research’, Journal of Advances Nursing, 53(2): 213–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03717.x
    Krieger, N., (2001) ‘Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 30(4): 668–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/30.4.668
    Kunkel, D., Wilcox, B. L., Cantor, J., Palmer, E., Linn, S. and Dowrick, P., (2004) Report of the APA Task Force on Advertising and Children. Retrieved 18 March 2007, from http://www.apa.org/releases/childrenads.pdf
    Labonte, R. and Robertson, A., (1996) ‘Delivering the goods, showing our stuff: the case for a constructivist paradigm for health promotion research and practice’, Health Education Quaterly, 23: 431–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819602300404
    Labour Research Department (2004) An Overview of the Services and Activities of the Labour Research Department. Retrieved 23 March 2007, from http://www.tssa.org.uk/article-1.php3?id_article-2118
    Lachance, L. L., Houle, C. R., Cassidy, E. F., Bourcier, E., Cohn, J. H. and Orians, C. E., (2006) ‘Collaborative design and implementation of a multisite community coalition evaluation’, Health Promotion Practice, 7(2): 44S–55S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839906287066
    Lalonde, M., (1974) A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians. Ottawa: Information Canada. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892002000900001
    Last, J. M., (2007) A Dictionary of Public Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900505-6
    Last, J. M. (ed.), (2007) A Dictionary of Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2802%2900505-6
    Laverack, G., (2005) Public Health: Power, Empowerment and Professional Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Layard, R., (2005) Happiness – Lessons from a New Science. London: Penguin.
    Leavell, H. and Clarke, E. G., (1965) Preventative Medicine for the Doctor and his Community. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lee, B. A., Price-Spratlen, T. and Kanan, J. W., (2003) ‘Determinants of homelessness in metropolitan areas’, Journal of Urban Affairs, 25(3): 335–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9906.00168
    Lenihan, P., (2005) ‘MAPP and the evolution of planning in public health practice’, Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 11(5): 381–6.
    Looker, K. J. and Hallett, T. B., (2006) ‘Individual freedom versus collective responsibility: too many rights make a wrong?’ 4, Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 3: 14–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-7622-3-14
    Louv, R., (2005) Last Child in the Woods: Saving our Children from Nature-deficit Disorder. New York: Workman.
    Luck, M., Bamford, M. and Williamson, P., (2000) Men's Health – Perspectives, Diversity and Paradox. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Lunt, J. and Coyle, D., (2007) Person Centred Thinking Minibook for People who Use Mental Health Services. Stockport: The Learning Community for Person Centred Practices.
    Lupton, D., (1995) The Imperative of Health: Public health and the regulated body. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221976
    MacDonald, M. A., (2004) ‘From miasma to fractals: the epidemiology revolution and public health nursing’, Public Health Nursing, 21(4): 380–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0737-1209.2004.21412.x
    Mackereth, C., (2007) Community Development: New Challenges, New Opportunities. London: CPHVA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2012.698867
    MacRae, G., Regehr, M., McKenzie, H. and Henteleff, M., (2004) ‘Teaching practicing surgeons critical appraisal skills with an Internet-based journal club: a randomized, controlled trial’, Surgery, 136(3): 641–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2004.02.003
    Making Ends Meet: A website for managing the money in social services (n.d.) Social Services Inspectorate & Audit Commission. Retrieved 22 August 2007, from http://www.joint-reviews.gov.uk/money/Commissioning/2-contents.html
    March, D. and Susser, E., (2006) ‘The eco- in eco epidemiology’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(6): 1379–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyl249
    Marchette, C., Meyer, P. S. and Ausubel, J. H., (2007) ‘Human population dynamics revisited with the logistic model: how much can be modeled and predicted?’Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 52: 1–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2896%2900001-7
    Marmot, M., Banks, J., Blundell, R., Lessof, C. and Nazroo, J., (2002) Health, Wealth and Lifestyles of the Older Population in England: The 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    Marmot, M., (2003) ‘Self-esteem and health’, British Medical Journal, 327: 574–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.327.7415.574
    Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R., (2001) ‘Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health’, British Medical Journal, 322: 1233–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7296.1233
    Martin, C. J. and McQueen, D. V., (1989) Readings for a New Public Health. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Masika, R. and Joekes, S., (1997) Environmentally Sustainable Development and Poverty: A Gender Analysis Report prepared for the Gender Equality Unit. Brighton: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
    Mason, T., Carlisle, C., Walkins, C. and Whitehead, E., (2001) Stigma and Social Exclusion in Healthcare. London: Routledge.
    McDonald, G., (2006) What is Mental Health in Mental Health Promotion across the Lifespan?Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    McDonald, G. and O'Hara, K., (1998) Ten Elements of Mental Health, its Promotion and Demotion: Implications for Practice. Society of Health Education and Health Promotion Specialists.
    McKeown, F., (2007) ‘The experiences of older people on discharge from hospital following assessment by the public health nurse’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16: 469–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01556.x
    McKeown, T., (1976) The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage, or Nemesis?London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-199708000-00062
    Medical Research Council (2002) Working Group Report. Water Fluoridation and Health. London: Medical Research Council.
    Memon, A., (2006) ‘Epidemiological understanding: an overview of basic concepts and study designs’, in D.Pencheon, C.Guest, J. A.Melzer and M.Gray (eds), Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mental Health Foundation (2005) GPs Should be Offering Exercise on Prescription to all Patients with Depression, Says New Report by the Mental Health Foundation. Retrieved June 22 2008, from http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/media/news-releases/news-releases-2005/29-march-2005/
    The Mental Health Foundation (2005) Up and Running: Exercise Therapy and the Treatment for Mild or Moderate Depression in Primary Care. London: The Mental Health Foundation.
    Menzies, D., Nair, A., Williamson, P. A., Schembri, S., Al-Khairalla, M. Z. H., Barnes, M. et al., (2006) ‘Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and markers of inflammation among bar workers before and after a legislative ban on smoking in public places’, JAMA, 296: 1742–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.14.1742
    Metcalfe, R., (2005) ‘Compliance, adherence, concordance – what's in a NAME?’Practical Neurology, 5: 192–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-7766.2005.00313.x
    Mikolajczyk, R. T., Maxwell, A. E., El Ansari, W., Naydenova, V., Stock, C., Ilieva, S. et al., (2007) ‘Prevalence of depressive symptoms in university students from Germany, Denmark, Poland and Bulgaria’, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(2): 105–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-007-0282-0
    Miller, A. B. and Vivek, G., (2004) Screening,
    4th edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Miller, W. R. and Rollnick, S., (2002) Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change,
    2nd edn.
    New York: Guildford.
    Mind, (2007) Ecotherapy: The Green Agenda for Mental Health. London: Mind.
    Minkler, M., (1997) Community Organization and Community Building for Health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Montessori, M., (1976) From Childhood to Adolescence. New York: Schocken. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02152.x
    Mooney, G., (2003) Economics, Medicine and Health Care. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    Moore, T. and Lakha, R., (2006) Tolley's Handbook of Disaster and Emergency Management: Principles and Practice,
    3rd edn.
    Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Morris, L. S. and Schulz, R. M., (1992) ‘Patient compliance: an overview’, Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy, 17: 283–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2710.1992.tb01306.x
    MUCPP (Mangaung-University of the Orange Free State Community Partnership Programme) (1995) Health For All: Building our Nation Together. Bloemfontein, South Africa: MUCPP.
    Muir Gray, J. A., (2001) Evidence-based Healthcare: How to Make Health Policy and Management Decisions. London: Churchill Livingstone. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehbc.2005.08.004
    Mulcahy, H., (2004) ‘Vulnerable family as understood by public health nurses’, Community Practitioner, 77: 257–60.
    Myers, L. B. and Midence, L., (1998) Adherence to Treatment in Medical Conditions. New York, NJ: Harwood Academic.
    Naidoo, J. and Wills, J., (2000) Health Promotion Foundation for Practice. Edinburgh: Harcourt.
    Naidoo, J. and Wills, J., (2005) Public Health and Health Promotion. London: Baillière, Tindall.
    Nardi, D. A. and Petr, M. P. J., (2003) Community Health and Wellness Needs Assessment: A Step-by-step Guide. New York: Thomson/Delmar Learning.
    National Audit Office (2004) Getting Citizens Involved: Community Participation in Neighbourhood Renewal. London: National Audit Office.
    Natural England (2008) Natural England Works for People, Places and Nature to Conserve and Enhance Biodiversity, Landscapes and Wildlife in Rural, Coastal and Marine Areas. Retrieved 3 April 2008, from http://www.naturalengland.org.uk
    Navarro, V., (1976) Medicine under Capitalism. New York: Prodist.
    NCCSDO (National Co-ordinating Centre for NHS Service Delivery and Organisation R & D) (2005) Concordance, Adherence and Compliance in Medicine Taking. London: NCCSDO.
    Neiner, J., Howze, E. and Greaney, M., (2004) ‘Using scenario planning in public health: anticipating alternative futures’, Health Promotion Practice, 5(1): 69–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839903257692
    Nelson, T. F., Gortmaker, S. L., Subramanian, S. V. and Wechsler, H., (2007) ‘Vigorous physical activity among college students in the United States’, Journal of Physical Activities Health, 4(4): 495–508.
    NESS (National Evaluation of Sure Start) (2005) Research Report: Early Impacts of Sure Start Local Programmes on Children and Families. Retrieved 20 August 2007, from http://www.ness.bbk.ac.uk/documents/activities/impact/1183.pdf
    Newland, R. and Cowley, S., (2003) ‘Investigating how health visitors define vulnerability’, Community Practitioner, 76, 464–7.
    NHS Insitute for Innovation and Improvement (2001) Leadership Qualities Framework. Retrieved 28 March 2008, from http://www.nhsleadershipqualities.nhs.uk/
    NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement (2005) Improvement Leaders Guides. Retrieved 28 March 2007, from http://www.institute.nhs.uk/building_capability/building_improvement_capability/improvement_leaders%27_guides%3a_introduction.html
    NHS Leadership Centre (2001) NHS Leadership Qualities Framework. Retrieved June 21 2008, from http://www.nhsleadershipqualities.nhs.uk/Portals/0/Technical_Research_Paper_Summary.pdf
    NHS Leadership Centre (2004) Leadership Qualities Framework: A Good Practice Guide NHS Modernisation Agency. London: NHS.
    NICE (National Institute Clinical Excellence) (2006) Cardiovascular Disease – Statins: Guidance. London: NICE.
    NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence) (2005) Health Needs Assessment: A Practical Guide. London: NICE.
    NSHP (National Healthy School Programme) (2004) Final Evaluation Report. London: Department of Health.
    Nicolau, B., Thompson, W. J., Steele, G. and Allison, P. J., (2007) ‘Life-course epidemiology: concepts and theoretical models and its relevance to chronic oral conditions’, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 35(4): 241–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00332.x
    NSMC (National Social Marketing Centre) (2006) It's Our Health. London: NSMC.
    NSMC (2007) Social Marketing Big Pocket Guide. London: NSMC.
    NSO (National Statistics Online) (2004) Older people – population. Retrieved 7 November 2007, from http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=874&Pos=3&ColRank=2&Rank=1000
    Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2004) Specialist Community Public Health Nursing. Retrieved June 21 2008, from http://www.nmc-uk.org/aArticle.aspx?ArticleID=2137
    Nutbeam, D., (1996) ‘Achieving best practice in health promotion: improving the fit between research and practice’, Health Education Research, 11(3): 317–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/11.3.317
    Nutbeam, D., (1998) ‘Health promotion glossary’, Health Promotion International, 13: 349–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/13.4.349
    Nutbeam, D., (2000) ‘Health literacy as a public health goal: a challenge for contemporary health education and communication strategies into the 21st century’, Health Promotion International, 15(3): 259–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/15.3.259
    Nutrition Society (2007) Voluntary Register of Nutritionists: Guide to Registration as a Nutritionist. Cambridge: Nutrition Society.
    NWPHO (North West Public Health Observatory) (2002) Older People and Health in the North-west of England. Retrieved 12 November 2007, from http://www.nwph.net/nwpho/Publications/olderp.pdf
    Oakley, K., (2002) Occupational Health Nursing. London: Whurr.
    Oakley, S., (2002) ‘Design and analysis of social intervention studies in health’, in A.Bowling and S.Ebrahim (eds), Handbook of Health Research Methods. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    O'Connor, E. M., (2001) ‘Student mental health: secondary education no more’, Monitor on Psychology, 32(8):
    O'DonnellM.P., (2002) Health Promotion in the Workplace,
    3rd edn.
    Toronto: Delmar Thomson Learning.
    ODPM (Office for Deputy Prime Minister) (2005) Creating Healthier Communities: A Resource Pack for Local Partnerships. Office for Public Sector Information Disability Discrimination Act (1995). London: HMSO.
    OECD (2007) Policy Coherence for Development Migration and Developing Countries. Paris: OECD.
    Office for National Statistics (2003) Deaths by Age, Sex and Underlying Cause in England and Wales. London: Stationery Office.
    Office for National Statistics (2006) Population Trends. London: Office for National Statistics.
    Ofsted (2001) A Review of Evidence of the Impact on Schools of the Implementation of the National Healthy School Standard drawn from the Ofsted Database of Schools in England Inspected September 2000–July 2001. London: Ofsted.
    Oliver, M., (1996) Understanding Disability from Theory to Practice. London: Macmillan.
    O'Neill, M. and Pederson, A., (1992) ‘Building a methods bridge between policy analysis and healthy public policy’, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 83: 25–30.
    Orme, J., Powell, J., Taylor, P. and Grey, M., (2007) Public Health for the 21st Century. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press.
    Osbourne, H., (2005) Health Literacy from A-Z: Practical Ways to Communicate your Health Message. London: Jones and Bartlett.
    Oxfam (2007) Weather Alert to Climate Alarm. (Oxford Briefing paper). Oxford: Oxfam.
    Patton, G. C., Carlin, J. B., Coffey, C., Wolfe, R., Hibbert, M. and Bowes, G., (1998) ‘Depression, anxiety, and smoking initiation: a prospective study over 3 years’, Am J Public Health Nations Health, 88(10): 518–22.
    Payne, J. and Schulte, S., (2003) ‘Mass media, public health, and achieving health literacy’, Journal of Health Communication, 8: 124–5.
    Pearce, N., (1996) ‘Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health’, American Journal of Public Health, 86(5): 678–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.5.678
    Pencheon, D., Melzer, D., Gray, M. and Guest, C., (2006) Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Pilgrim, D. and Rogers, A., (2003) Sociology of Mental Illness,
    3rd edn.
    Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Pleasant, A. and Kuruvilla, S., (2008) ‘A tale of two health literacies: public health and clinical approaches to health literacy’, Health Promotion International Advance, 23(2): 152–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dan001
    Plotkin, S., Orenstein, W. and Offit, P., (2003) Vaccines. Philidelphia: Saunders. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/374419
    Porritt, J., (2005) ‘Healthy environment-healthy people: the link between sustainable development and health’, Public Health, 119: 952–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2005.08.004
    Power, C., Lake, J. K. and Cole, T. J., (1997) ‘Measurement and long-term health risks of child and adolescent fatness’, International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 21: 507–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800454
    Primary Care Group London Network for Nurses and Midwives (2007) Commissioning a Patient-led NHS: A Toolkit for Nurses. London: Primary Care Group London Network for Nurses and Midwives.
    Pring, R., (2000) Philosophy of Education Research. New York: Continuum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131910701427330
    Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 (1984). London: The Stationery Office.
    Public Health Resource Unit (2007) Public Health Workforce Framework. Oxford: PHRU.
    Public Health (Infectious Disease) regulation (1998). London: The Stationery Office.
    Putnam, R. D., (1995) ‘Bowling alone: America's declining social capital’, Journal of Democracy, 6: 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jod.1995.0002
    Putnam, R. D., (2007) ‘E pluribus unum: diversity and community in the twenty-first century: the 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(2): 137–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.2007.00176.x
    Quarantelli, E. L. (ed.), (1998) What is Disaster?New York: Routledge.
    Rains, J. C., Penzien, D. B. and Lipchik, G. L., (2006) ‘Behavioural facilitation of medical treatment for headache – Part 2: theoretical models and behavioural strategies for improving adherence’, American Headache Society, 46: 1395–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2006.00582.x
    RCSLT (Royal College of Speech and Language Therapy (n.d.) Service Specification. Retrieved 18 January 2008, from http://www.rcslt.org/resources/managers_resources/service_spec
    Reed, J., Inglis, P., Cook, G., Clarke, C. and Cook, M., (2007) ‘Specialist nurses for older people: implications from UK development sites’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 58(4): 368–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04241.x
    Reid, J., Jarvis, R., Richardson, J. and Stewart, A. G., (2005) Responding to Chronic Environmental Problems in Cheshire and Merseyside – Systems and Procedures. Retrieved 27 June 2007, from http://www.hpa.org.uk/chemicals/reports/CHAPR4_May2005.pdf
    Replacement of treatability and care tests, Mental Health Act (2007).
    Richards, H. L., Fortune, D. G. and Griffiths, C. E. M., (2005) ‘Adherence to treatment in patients with psoriasis’, European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 52: 468–73.
    Richardson, L. and Le Grande, J., (2002) Outsider and Insider Expertise: The Responses of Residents of Deprived Neighbourhoods to an Academic Definition of Social Exclusion. London: London School of Economics, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9515.00299
    Rissel, C., (1994) ‘Empowerment: The holy grail of health promotion’, Health Promotion International, 9: 39–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/9.1.39
    Robinson, T., (2001) ‘Television and childhood obesity’, Pediatric Clinics of North America, 48(4): 1017–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955%2805%2970354-0
    Roche, M., (2004) ‘Complicated problems, complicated solutions? Homelessness and joined up policy responses’, Social Policy and Administration, 38(7): 758–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2004.00417.x
    Roger, A. and Pilgrim, D., (2005) A Sociology of Mental Health and Illness,
    3rd edn.
    Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Rogers, A. C., (1997) ‘Vulnerability, health and healthcare’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28: 65–72.
    Rogers, B., (2003) Occupational and Environmental Health: Concepts and Practice. New York: Saunders. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/21650799-20120316-51
    Rogers, W. A., (2004) ‘Ethical issues in public health: a qualitative study of public health practice in Scotland’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 8: 446–50.
    Rose, M. H. and Killien, M., (1983) ‘Risk and vulnerability: a case for differentiation’, Advances in Nursing Science, 5: 60–78.
    Rowland, H. J. and Cooper, P., (1983) Environment and Health. London: Edward Arnold.
    Runciman, P., Watson, H., McIntosh, J. and Tolson, D., (2006) ‘Community nurses' health promotion work with older people’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55(1): 46–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.03882.x
    Ryan, J. M., Mahoney, P. F., Greaves, I. and Bowyer, G., (2002) Conflict and Catastrophe Medicine: A Practical Guide. London: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-0215-1
    Rycroft-Malone, J. et al., (2004) ‘What counts as evidence in evidence-based practice’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(1): 81–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03068.x
    Sackett, D. and Parkes, J., (1998) ‘Teaching critical appraisal: no quick fixes’, Can Med Assoc J, 158(2): 203–4.
    Sackett, D. L., Rosenberg, W. M. C., Muir Gray, J. A., Haynes, R. B. and Richardson, W. S., (1996) ‘Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't’, British Medical Journal, 312: 1085–6.
    Sahota, P., Rudolph, M., Dixey, R., Hill, J. and Cade, J., (2001) ‘Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity’, British Medical Journal, 323: 1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.323.7320.1027
    Salisbury, D., Beverley, P. and Miller, E., (2002) ‘Vaccine programmes and policies’, British Medical Bulletin, 62: 201–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/62.1.201
    Salisbury, D., Ramsay, M. and Noakes, K., (2006) Immunisation Against Infectious Disease. London: The Stationery Office.
    Salmon, D. A. and Omer, S. B., (2006) ‘Individual freedoms versus collective responsibility: immunization decision-making in the face of occasionally competing values online’, Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, 3: 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-7622-3-13
    Salmond, S. W., (2007) ‘Advancing evidence based practice: a primer’, Orthopaedic Nursing, 26(2): 114–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NOR.0000265869.72265.0a
    Saracci, R., (1999) ‘Epidemiology in progress: thoughts, tensions and targets’, International Journal of Epidemiology, 28(5): 997–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.ije.a019908
    Scamber, G., (2004) Medical Sociology: Major Themes in Health and Social Welfare. London: Routledge.
    Schama, S., (1995) Landscape and Memory. London: HarperCollins.
    SCMH (2004) Better Must Come. From Mental Health Services to Employment: Black Men Moving On. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.
    SCMH (2007) Policy Paper 8: Mental Health at Work: Developing the Business Case. London: The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.
    Scott, L., (2003) ‘Vulnerability, need and significant harm: an analysis tool’, Community Practitioner, 763: 468–73.
    Scott-Samuel, A., (1998) ‘Health impact assessment – theory into practice’, J Epidemiol Community Health, 52: 704–5http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.52.11.704
    Scott-Samuel, A., Birley, M. and Ardern, K., (2001) The Merseyside Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment,
    3rd edn.
    London: International Health Impact Assessment Consortium.
    Scriven, A. and Garmen, S., (2007) Public Health: Social Context and Action. London: McGraw-Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789690306200208
    Seale, C., (2003) Media and Health. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216286
    Seedhouse, D., (2006) What Is Mental Health in Mental Health Promotion Across the Lifespan. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Sellman, D., (2005) ‘Towards an understanding of nursing as a response to human vulnerability’, Nursing Philosophy, 6: 2–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-769X.2004.00202.x
    Seo, D. C., Nehl, E., Agley, J. and Ma, S. M., (2007) ‘Relations between physical activity and behavioural and perceptual correlates among midwestern college students’, J Am Coll Health, 56(2): 187–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JACH.56.2.187-198
    SEU (Social Exclusion Unit) (1998) Rough Sleeping: A Report by the Social Exclusion Unit. London: SEU.
    Shaw, I. F., Greene, J. C. and Mark, M. M., (2006) The Sage Handbook of Evaluation. London: Sage.
    Sheppard, M. and Woodcock, J., (1999) ‘Needs as an operating concept: the case of social work with children and families’, Child and Family Social Work, 4: 67–76.
    Shinn, M., (2007) ‘International homelessness: policy, socio-cultural, and individual perspectives’, Journal of Social Issues, 63(3): 657–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00529.x
    Shipp, J. C., Vargas, L., Hughes, T., Fox, E. and Gonzales, D., (1999) ‘A successful, cost-effective diabetes treatment program in a university county hospital’, Drug Benefit Trends, 11(3): 56–66.
    Simpson, J. A. and Weiner, E. S. C., (1989) The Oxford Dictionary,
    2nd edn.
    Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Singleton, N., Bumpstead, R., O'Brien, M., Lee, A. and Meltzer, H., (2000) Psychiatric Morbidity among Adults Living in Private Households. London: Social Survey Division of the Office for National Statistics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954026021000045967
    Skärsäter, I., (2006) ‘Parents with first time major depression: perceptions of social support for themselves and their children’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 20(3): 308–14.
    Skinner, T. C., (2004) ‘Psychological barriers. Adherence to treatment: a major obstacle to reaching goals in type 2 diabetes’, European Journal of Endocrinology, 151(2): 13–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/eje.0.151T013
    Smith, B. J., Tang, K. C. and Nutbeam, D., (2006) ‘WHO Health Promotion Glossary: new terms’, Health Promotion International, 21(4).
    Social Exclusion Task Force (2006) The Report on Reaching Out: An Action Plan on Social Exclusion. London: Social Exclusion Unit.
    Social Exclusion Unit (1999) Teenage Pregnancy. London: The Stationary Office.
    Social Science Research Unit (2005) Reaching out to Pregnant Teenagers and Teenage Parents: Innovative Practice from Sure Start Plus Pilot Programmes. London: SSRU.
    Solar, O. and Irwin, A., (2007) Discussion Paper for the Commission on Social Determinants of Health – Draft April 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization.
    SouthAfrica.info. (2007) Doing business: economic review. Retrieved 13 February 2008, from http://www.southafricainfo/doing_business/economy/econorevview.htm
    Stacey, R., (2002) Strategic Management and Organisational Dynamics: The Challenge of Complexity. London: Prentice-Hall.
    Statham, D., (2000) ‘Guest Editorial: Partnership between health and social care’, Health and Social Care in the Community, 8(2): 87–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2524.2000.00236.x
    Stephens, T., (1998) ‘Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: evidence from four population surveys’, Preventive Medicine, 17: 35–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2888%2990070-9
    Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Cui, W., Bellisle, F., Zotti, A. M., Baranyai, R. and Sanderman, R., (2002) ‘Trends in smoking, diet, physical exercise, and attitudes toward health in European university students from 13 countries, 1990–2000’, Preventive Medicine, 35(2): 97–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2002.1048
    Stewart, A. G., Wilkinson, E. and Howard, C., (2005) ‘Health: a necessity for sustainable development’. Paper presented at the the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
    Stock, C., Kücük, N., Miseviciene, I., Guillen-Grima, F., Petkeviciene, J. and Aguinaga-Ontoso, I., (2003) ‘Differences in health complaints among university students from three European countries’, Preventive Medicine, 37(6): 535–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.07.001
    Susser, M., (1999) ‘Should the epidemiologist be a social scientist or a molecular biologist?’International Journal of Epidemiology, 28(5): 1019–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.ije.a019905
    Susser, M. and Susser, E., (1996a) ‘Choosing a future for epidemiology: 1. Eras and paradigms’, American Journal of Public Health, 86(5): 668–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.5.668
    Susser, M. and Susser, E., (1996b) ‘Choosing a future for epidemiology: 2 From black box to Chinese boxes and eco-epidemiology’, American Journal of Public Health, 86(5): 674–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.86.5.674
    Swanson, D., Pintér, L., Bregha, F., Volkery, A. and Jacob, K., (2004) National Strategies for Sustainable Development: Challenges, Approaches and Innovations in Strategic and Co-ordinated Action, Based on a 19-country Analysis. Retrieved 13 February 2008, from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2004/measure_nat_strategies_sd.pdf
    Taylor, A. H., Doust, J. and Webborn, A. D. J., (1998) ‘Randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of a GP exercise referral programme in Hailsham, East Sussex, on modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 52: 595–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.52.9.595
    Taylor, G., Easter, K. and Hegney, R., (2004) Enhancing Occupational Safety and Health. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Taylor, L., Taske, N., Swann, C. and Waller, S., (2007) Public Health Interventions to Promote Positive Mental Health and Prevent Mental Health Disorders among Adults. Evidence Briefing, National Institute for Clinical Excellence. London: NICE.
    Terry, L. L., (1964) ‘The complex world of modern public health: the third annual Bronfman lecture’, Am J Public Health Nations Health, 54(2): 189–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.54.2.189
    Themesl-Hubber, M., Hubbard, G. and Munro, P., (2007) ‘Frail older people's experiences and use of health and social care services’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 15: 222–9.
    Thomas, M. and Hynes, C., (1998) ‘Acquiring knowledge’, in T.Harrison (ed.), Children and Sexuality – Perspectives in Healthcare. London: Baillière, Tindall.
    Thorogood, N., (1992) ‘What is the relevance of sociology for health promotion?’ in R. and M. G.Bunton (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Roudedge.
    Tones, K. and Green, J., (2004) Health Promotion. Planning and Strategies. London: Sage.
    Tones, K. and Tilford, S., (2001) Health Promotion Effectiveness, Efficiency and Equity. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
    Townsend, P., Davidson, N. and Whithead, M., (1992) The Black Report and the Health Divide: Inequalities in Health. London: Penguin.
    Travers, K. D., (1996) ‘The social organization of nutritional inequities’, Social Science and Medicine, 43: 543–53.
    Trinder, L. and Reynolds, S., (2000) Evidence-Based Practice. A Critical Appraisal. Oxford: Blackwell Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470699003.ch10
    Turner, B. S., (1991) ‘Recent developments in the theory of the body’, in M.Featherstone, M.Hepworth and B. S.Turner (eds), The Body: Social Processes and Cultural Theory. London: Sage.
    The UK Law Statute Database, The Ministry of Justice (1985).
    UK National Screening Committee (2003) Criteria for Appraising the Viability, Effectiveness and Appropriatness of a Screening Programme. Retrieved 12 December 2007, from http://www.library.nhs.uk/screening/
    UK Public Health Association (2007) Climates and Change – The Urgent Need to Connect Health and Sustainable Development. London: UKPHA.
    UNAIDS and World Health Organization (2004) AIDS Epidemic Update. UNAIDS/04. Geneva: UNAIDS and World Health Organization.
    United Nations (1992) ‘Agenda 21’, in Report of the United Nations. Rio de Janeiro: United Nations.
    United Nations (1997) Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21. New York: United Nations.
    United Nations (2002) World Summit on Sustainable Development. Johannesburg: United Nations.
    University of Toronto (2007) Health Promotion Programme Planning. Toronto: University of Toronto.
    US Census Bureau (2004) International Population Reports WP/02. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
    Vermeire, E., Hearnshaw, H., Van Royen, P. and Denekens, J., (2001) ‘Patient adherence to treatment: three decades of research. A comprehensive review’, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 262: 331–4.
    von Bertalanffy, L., (1968) General Systems Theory. New York: Brazilli.
    von Schirnding, Y., (2002) Health in Sustainable Development Planning: The Role of Indicators. Retrieved 13 February 2008, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/IndicatorsFrontpages.pdf
    Vrijheid, M., (2000) ‘Health effects of residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: a review of epidemiologic literature’, Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(1): 101–12.
    Wade, E., Smith, J., Peck, E. and Freeman, T., (2006) Commissioning in the Reformed NHS: Policy into Practice. Birmingham: University of Birmingham, Health Services Management Centre NHS Alliance.
    Wagstaff, A., (2002) ‘Poverty and health sector inequalities’, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 80(2): 97–105.
    Wakefield, A. J. et al., (1998) ‘Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children’, Lancet, 351: 637–41http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2897%2911096-0
    Waldron, I., (1980) ‘Employment and women's health: An analysis of causal relationships’, International Journal of Health Services, 10(3): 435–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/8QQ5-KR69-627U-61M6
    Wankel, L. M., (1993) ‘The importance of enjoyment to adherence and psychological benefits from physical activity’, International Journal of Sports Psychology, 24: 151–69.
    Wardle, J., Griffiths, J., Johnson, F. and Rapoport, L., (2000) ‘Intentional weight control and food choice habits in a national representative sample of adults in the UK’, International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24: 534–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801188
    Wardle, J., Parmenter, K. and Waller, J., (2000) ‘Nutrition knowledge and food intake’, Appetite, 34: 269–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/appe.1999.0311
    Wardle, J., Steptoe, A., Gulis, G., Sek, H., Todorova, I., Vogele, C. et al., (2004) ‘Depression, perceived control, and life satisfaction in university students from central-Eastern and western Europe’, International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 11(1): 2–36.
    Watterson, A., (2003) Public Health Practice. Basingstoke: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/24.3.227
    Weale, A., (2006) ‘What is so good about citizens' involvement in healthcare?’ in E.Andersson, J.Tritter and R.Wilson (eds), Healthy Democracy. London: Involve/NCI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430149
    Weed, D., (2002) ‘Theory and practice in epidemiology’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 954(1): 52–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb02746.x
    Weinreich, P. and Saunderson, W., (2003) Analysing Identity: Cross-Cultural, Societal and Clinical Contexts. London: Routledge.
    Weiss, N. S., Anderson, R. M. and Lasker, R. D., (2002) ‘Making the most of collaboration: exploring the relationship between partnership synergy and partnership functioning’, Health Educ Behav, 29: 683–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019802237938
    Welsh Assembly Government (2006) Chief Medical Officer's Report Series Wales 2: Health in Local Areas: A Compendium of Maps. Retrieved 20 August 2007, from http://new.wales.gov.uk/topics/health/ocmo/communications/reports/maps?lang=en
    Wenzal, E., (1997) ‘A comment on health promotion settings’, Journal of Health Promotion, 1: 1–19.
    Wheway, R. and Millward, A., (1997) Child's Play: Facilitating Play on Housing Estates. London: Chartered Institute of Housing.
    Whitehead, D., (2000) ‘Using mass media within health-promoting practice: a nursing perspective’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(4): 807–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01544.x
    Whitehead, D., (2003) ‘Health promotion and health education viewed as symbiotic paradigms: bridging the gap between them’, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12: 796–805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2003.00804.x
    Whitehead, E., (2001) ‘Teenage pregnancy: on the road to social death’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 38: 437–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7489%2800%2900086-9
    Whitehead, M. (ed.), (1995) Tackling Inequalities: A Review of Policy Initiatives. London: King's Fund.
    WHO (World Health Organization) (1948) Constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1978) The Alma Ata Declaration. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1984) Health for All Targets. Copenhagen: WHO.
    WHO (1985) Targets for Health For All. Copenhagen: Regional Office for Europe.
    WHO (1986) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1993) The Health of Young People, A Challenge and a Promise. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1997) The Jakata Declaration on Health Promotion Offers a Vision and Focus for Health Promotion into the Next Century. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1998) ‘Resolution of the Executive Board of the WHO on health promotion’, Health Promotion International, 13(266).
    WHO (2004) Guiding Principle for Feeding Infants and Young Children During Emergencies. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (2005d) Effective Media Communication During Public Health Emergencies. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1998) Health Promotion Glossary. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (1999) ‘Health impact assessment: main concepts and suggested approach: Gothenburg Consensus Papere’. Paper presented at the WHO Regional Office for Europe.
    WHO (2000) Smallpox (HTML). Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (2002) Environmental Health Criteria for Fluorides. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (2003) Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (2004) Active Ageing: Towards Age Friendly Primary Healthcare. Retrieved 10 November 2007, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241592184.pdf
    WHO (2005) Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments Highlights 2004: Protecting Human Health through Scientific Evidence, Reasonable Caution and Strategic Partnerships. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (2007) Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health: Obesity and Overweight. Geneva: WHO.
    WHO (n.d.) World Summit on Sustainable Development. Retrieved 13 February 2008, from http://www.who.int/wssd/en/
    Wilcox, D., (1994) Effective Participation. London: Partnership Books.
    Williams, R., (1998) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Revised and Expanded. London: Fontana. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.21265
    Wilkinson, R. and Marmot, M., (2003) Social Determinants of Health. The Solid Facts. Geneva: WHO.
    Wills, J. and Earle, S., (2007) ‘Theoretical perspectives on promoting public health’, in S.Earle, E. C.Lloyd, M.Sidell and S.Spurr (eds), Theory and Research in Promoting Public Health. London: Sage in association with Open University.
    Wilson, E. O., (1984) Biophilia: The Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Wilson, J. M. G. and Jungner, G., (1968) Principles and Practice of Screening for Disease. Geneva: WHO.
    Wood-Harper, J., (2005) ‘Informing education policy on MMR: Balancing individual freedom and collective responsibilities for the promotion of public health’, Nursing Ethics, 12: 43–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0969733005ne757oa
    Woodin, J., (2006) ‘Healthcare commissioning and contracting’, in K.Walshe and J.Smith (eds), Healthcare Management. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    Woodroffe, C., Glickmanm, M., Barker, M. and Power, C., (1993) Children, Teenagers and Health: The key data. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    World Bank (1993) World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
    World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987) Our Common Future. Switzerland: United Nations.
    Wright, J., (1998) Health Needs Assessment in Practice. London: BMJ Books.
    Wright Foundation Conference (2003) 4th National GP Referral. Birmingham.
    Wynn, T. A., Johnson, R. E., Fouad, M., Holt, C., Scarinci, I., Nagy, C. et al., (2006) ‘Addressing disparities through coalition building: Alabama REACH 2010 lessons learning’, J Healthcare Poor Underserued, 17(2): 55–77.
    Young, I. and Whitehead, M., (1993) ‘Back to the future: our social history and its impact on health education’, Health Education Journal, 52(3): 114–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200303
    Zakocs, R. C. and Edwards, E. M., (2006) ‘What explains community coalition effectiveness? A review of the literature’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(4): 351–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.12.004
    Zubin and Spring, (1977) ‘Vulnerability: a new view of schizophrenia’, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86: 260–66.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website