Key Concepts in Planning forms part of an innovative set of companion texts for the Human Geography sub-disciplines. Organized around 20 short essays, Key Concepts in Planning provides a cutting edge introduction to the central concepts that define contemporary research in Planning. Involving detailed and expansive discussions, the book includes: An introductory chapter providing a succinct overview of the recent developments in the field; Over 20 key concept entries with comprehensive explanations, definitions and evolutions of the subject; Extensive pedagogic features that enhance understanding including a glossary, figures, diagrams and further reading

Key Concepts in Planning is an ideal companion text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Planning and covers the expected staples of the sub-discipline in an accessible style. Written by an internationally recognized set of authors, Key Concepts in Planning is an essential addition to any geography student's library.

Impacts and Externalities

Impacts and externalities

Related terms: public goods; ‘Polluter Pays’ principle; sustainability; rights; regulation; utilitarianism; freedom; change; environmental impact assessment; mitigation


This chapter outlines how planning has developed ways of thinking and sought to apply certain tools and techniques to try to mitigate or avoid so-called ‘externality effects’ that are derived from human actions. The recognition of various impacts of growth and of associated unplanned development in the nineteenth century gave rise to much of the early thinking and efforts to plan in the UK and internationally, and more specifically the need for some form of planning control (Booth, 2002). The lessons learned in this period of urbanisation and industrialisation produced a need to think about how to mitigate or redirect negative impacts and to ...

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