Studies is an important, interdisciplinary thread which runs through contemporary debates on globalization, citizenship, community studies, political geography and identity. It has always represented a significant component of ethnic, multicultural and racial studies but the last few years have seen a steady increase in separate / autonomous courses and modules as students, lecturers and researchers engage with the field. This proposal looks to pull together the central themes of the field; its approach is logical and the three main themes the authors identify are a useful hook upon which to hang the text. International relevance and marketability is obviously important; the inclusion of a US and a UK author with such sympathetic expertise will help to maximise the appeal of the project. The authors are aware of the need to balance the needs of different markets and their willingness to develop the proposal in response to the reviewers' comments is encouraging.

Brain Drain/Gain/Circulation

Brain drain/gain/circulation

Definition: Brain drain refers to the loss of highly trained people through emigration, primarily from developing countries. Conversely, brain gain refers to the gain or immigration of highly trained people to developed countries from developing ones. Brain drain and brain gain are typically thought of as one-way flows, while brain circulation refers to a two-way flow of highly trained individuals between developing and developed countries, often accompanied by technology and capital.

In the 1960s and 1970s, the term ‘brain drain’ was used to describe the loss or emigration of highly educated and skilled individuals primarily from ‘developing’ countries to ‘developed’ ones. Developed countries were seen as winners in this process, gaining needed human capital to work in booming science and technology industries. ...

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