The Sage Course Companion on Marketing is an accessible introduction to the subject that will help readers to extend their understanding of key concepts and enhance their thinking skills in line with course requirements. It provides support on how to revise for exams and prepare for and write assessed pieces. Readers are encouraged not only to think like a marketer but also to think about the subject critically. It is much more than a revision guide for undergraduates; it is an essential tool that will help readers take their course understanding to new levels and help them achieve success in their undergraduate course.




Positioning is the process of establishing a brand in the minds of its consumers in an appropriate relationship to competing brands.

The positioning of a product in customers' minds is key to its success or failure in the market. Position is the place the product occupies relative to its competitors, and it is only in terms of consumer perception that position has any meaning. Positioning means putting the product into the appropriate position in the consumer's mind.

Positioning means that the firm needs to develop a theme that will provide a ‘meaningful distinction for customers’ (Day, 1990). Ries and Trout (2001) stated that many products already have a distinctive position in the mind of the customer, and that these positions are often difficult to dislodge.

According to Blankson ...

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