The Sage Course Companion on Marketing is an accessible introduction to the subject that will help readers to extend their understanding of key concepts and enhance their thinking skills in line with course requirements. It provides support on how to revise for exams and prepare for and write assessed pieces. Readers are encouraged not only to think like a marketer but also to think about the subject critically. It is much more than a revision guide for undergraduates; it is an essential tool that will help readers take their course understanding to new levels and help them achieve success in their undergraduate course.

The Marketing Mix

The marketing mix

The marketing mix is the group of activities undertaken by marketers to create and encourage exchanges with customers and consumers.

The marketing mix has been credited to McCarthy (1960/1987), but in fact this was only one of several competing marketing mix models that were around at about the same time. Borden (1964) conceptualised marketing as a process of planning, implementation and control but included a total of 12 elements in his marketing mix. Various alternatives were considered and rejected (Frey, 1961; Howard, 1957; Lazer and Kelly, 1962) but finally McCarthy's (1960) model was adopted and remains to this day the accepted wisdom. The basis of the concept is that marketers have various tools at their disposal for encouraging exchanges: these tools ...

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