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Daniel W. Price-Jones & Alastair L. Barrowcliff

In: Key Concepts in Learning Disabilities

Chapter : Intelligence

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Daniel W.Price-Jones and Alastair L.Barrowcliff

Operational definitions of intelligence describe it as a composite of core features, including reasoning, planning, problem solving, abstract thinking, comprehending complex ideas, learning quickly, and learning from experience (O'Reilly and Carr, 2007). Cognitive processes associated with intelligence are characterised by an ability to process, manipulate and utilise information. Gottfredson (1997) regarded intelligence as reflecting capabilities to attend to, understand and adaptively respond to the external environment. Indeed, alternative models of human intelligence have been offered which broaden the range of defining abilities in relation to both internal and external factors, such as socio-cultural influences, genetics, environmental support and neurological architecture for each individual.

The seemingly innocuous question of what is meant by the term ‘intelligence’ belies almost a century of academic ...

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