The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. Key Concepts in Journalism offers a systematic and accessible introduction to the terms, processes, and effects of journalism;a combination of practical considerations with theoretical issues; and further reading suggestions. The authors bring an enormous range of experience in newspaper and broadcast journalism, at national and regional level, as well as their teaching expertise. This book will be essential reading for students in journalism, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers.
The two-step flow model of media effects has its origins in Lazarsfeld, Berelson and Gaudet's study The People's Choice (1944), which attempted to assess the impact of media election coverage on voting behaviour in American presidential elections. The conclusions of the study proved contentious and challenged the findings of previous studies by suggesting that the influence of media on audiences was more modest and complex than previously realized (Klapper, 1960: 32).
Contra the hypodermic model of media effects, Lazarsfeld argued that: (1) voters' electoral choices were highly resistant to media influence; (2) media coverage tended to reinforce rather than change people's existing opinions (Lazarsfeld et al., 1944: 88–9); (3) the small minority of voters who were undecided were the least likely to listen and ...