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The record of a communicative event. Therefore, texts need to display two characteristics: first, they need to be recorded or recordable, as, for example, a newspaper report, a billboard advertisement, a film, a television programme, etc. A text must have a sense of stability and durability so different individuals may read, enjoy or otherwise respond to its message(s). Thus, interpersonal communication, such as a facial expression, a conversation or even a speech do not constitute ‘texts’ unless they are recorded. At this first level, the text is conceptualized as a product.

Second, texts must communicate – in other words, they must generate and exchange meanings. At this second level the text can be conceptualised as a process – that is, as a process of meaning-making ...

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