The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. Key Concepts in Journalism offers a systematic and accessible introduction to the terms, processes, and effects of journalism;a combination of practical considerations with theoretical issues; and further reading suggestions. The authors bring an enormous range of experience in newspaper and broadcast journalism, at national and regional level, as well as their teaching expertise. This book will be essential reading for students in journalism, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers.

Target Audience

Target audience

The individual(s) whom a speaker intends or desires to address with a text. It is important to recognize that the individuals receiving (reading or watching) texts are not always the target audience, or the group for whom they are intended. Bell (1991: 91) breaks ‘the audience’ down into four sub-groups, ‘according to whether the persons are known, ratified and/or addressed by the speaker’. These groups are determined by the communicators' expectations and intent: ‘the target audience who is addressed, the auditors who are expected but not targeted, the over-hearers who are not expected to be in the audience and the eavesdroppers who are expected to be absent’ (ibid.: 92).

Communicators can easily misjudge the composition of their audience. This can offend over-hearers whose sensitivities ...

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