The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. Key Concepts in Journalism offers a systematic and accessible introduction to the terms, processes, and effects of journalism;a combination of practical considerations with theoretical issues; and further reading suggestions. The authors bring an enormous range of experience in newspaper and broadcast journalism, at national and regional level, as well as their teaching expertise. This book will be essential reading for students in journalism, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers.


In December 1998 shockwaves reverberated through the broadcast industry when the Independent Television Commission fined Carlton plc subsidiary Central Television £2 million for ‘grave breaches’ of its programme code. It was the largest financial penalty of its type and, said the ITC, reflected an ‘unprecedented breach of compliance’.

Two years previously, Carlton had made a documentary, The Connection, which was transmitted on the ITV network in October 1996. The programme claimed to demonstrate the existence of a major new route for drug-running into the UK, but, said the ITC, ‘much of what was offered as evidence used to substantiate this was fake’.

A lot of what was filmed was not what it seemed. While the ITC accepted that Carlton hadn't reconstructed a raid on a cartel ...

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