Edited by Dr Rob Kitchen, Director of the National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis (NIRSA) at the National University of Ireland, the Key Concepts in Human Geography series is an innovative set of companion texts for undergraduate students of the Human Geography sub-disciplines. Organized around 20 short essays, they provide a cutting edge introduction to the central concepts that define contemporary research in their field. All books in the series are authored by internationally recognized academics and include an introductory chapter and extensive pedagogic features in the form of a glossary, figures, diagrams and further reading. Morrissey et al have produced a detailed yet expansive guide to an area in which students have been poorly served in the past. Key Concepts in Historical Geography brings alive the human geographies of the past, and demonstrates their relevancy for understanding key aspects of the contemporary world. This new and innovative includes entries on: Colonial and Postcolonial geographies Globalization Space Power Intended Audience: Key Concepts in Historical Geography is an excellent text for upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students of Historical Geography.
Chapter 8: Race
In 1800 European powers claimed ownership over approximately 35 per cent of the planet's surface. Just prior to the great ‘scramble for Africa’ that proportion had increased to 67 per cent, a rate of increase of 83,000 square miles per annum. By the eve of World War I, the annual rate had risen to 240,000 square miles with Europe then owning ‘a grand total of roughly 85 per cent of the earth as colonies, protectorates, dependencies, dominions, and commonwealths’ (Said, 1993: 8). ‘Globalization by force’, as historian Niall Ferguson (cited in Bowles, 2007: 94) describes this period, turned Europeans into self-described masters of the universe (see also Chapter 19).
In his essay ‘Geography and Some Explorers,’ published in 1924, novelist and critic Joseph ...