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About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.  


‘Target’ has military connotations, and is one of the terms adopted by the world of education that has a combative sound – for example, ‘drive up standards’. Targets have to be ‘challenging’. They are set at different levels – whole school, individual teacher (for his or her classes), and individual pupil level.

Target-setting has become a central practice for the measurement of success in large corporations since the 1970s. Departments were set sales and productivity targets according to certain theories of management, and rewarded accordingly if they reached them.

This procedure was then imported into public services, including both the NHS and schools, during the 1980s. At the same time, schools were assigned individual budgets and separated from local authority funding. The controlling idea was that ...

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