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An important consequence of the current of new ideas which swept Europe and North America towards the end of the eighteenth century and was known as the Enlightenment was a new awareness of the size and variety of the globe. This transpired in two ways: in the first, the new doctrines of rights and equality led thinkers to declare for the universal principles of human nature to be established in all societies; in the second, the voyages of exploration and imperialism, the new sciences of archaeology and anthropology, caused the recognition of the otherness and sheer difference of humankind.

As the nineteenth century advanced, it became obvious with the stupendous explosion of new technologies brought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular to Western Europe, that ...

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