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About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.  


The original meaning of ‘professional’ was someone who had a religious calling, in order to profess one's faith. The word then took on a wider meaning, not just a person who joined a religious order, but one who had a particular trade or vocation. By the nineteenth century, the ‘professions’ had come to mean occupations generally carried out by the middle class. Today a professional is someone in a line of work that requires a specific qualification, such as a lawyer, doctor or teacher. There is also the distinction in sport between the professional, who plays a game in order to make a living, and the amateur, who does it for fun.

Recognition of the ‘professions’ was part of the coming-to-power of the British middle ...

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