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About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.  


‘Achievement’ can have a large, vague meaning, such as ‘the sum total of human experience’. However, the word has come to have a precise meaning in current educational terminology. At one time, modest goals could be achieved. A teacher could say, ‘He needed a grade C, and he achieved that,’ irrespective of whether this was the highest grade the pupil was capable of or not.

Achievement is now judged against the prediction. If the pupil was expected to get a C, and he got a C, that is satisfactory achievement. If he got a B, that is good achievement; an A or A* would be outstanding. If he was expected to get a B, and got a C, that is judged as underachievement. Predictions are ...

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