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The word ‘manage’ seems to have come into English from the Italian maneggiare which means to handle, especially to handle or train horses. This is interesting given its use in education relating to the management of people (both children and adults). It also means providing the overall day-to-day administration, and this applies to schools as well as to businesses and other organisations.

Historically, managers were agents (for example, farm managers), rather than owners or employers. This is the case in schools, where the local authority, or the governors, would be the employers. In industry, at different times, the interests of ‘management’ and ‘workers’ have often been in conflict, and then usually resolved by compromise, unless one side capitulates.

The word ‘management’ came to be used widely ...

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