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About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.  


It was during the 1840s that a newly-reforming government in Britain tackled the acute problems of conditions in the factories by appointing special inspectors to report on how factory owners met new stipulations for health and safety. At the same time, and as society moved towards a national system of compulsory education (not finalised until 1870), Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools (HMI) were dispatched to ensure that the ‘elementary schools’ came up to the standards warranting the continuation of their state grants. The most famous of the inspectors at this time was Matthew Arnold, appointed in 1851.

Thereafter, HMI became a powerful and respected presence in the making of education policy until in 1993 the then Tory government dissolved HMI into a system of competing ...

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