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About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.  


‘Examination’ implies a detailed scrutiny of an object, usually involving a microscope. In school examinations, it is the pupil who is under scrutiny. At the conclusion of a course of study, the final examination determines how much the pupil has learnt; or at least, how much he or she can regurgitate in the time allowed.

In schools, examinations are usually referred to in the abbreviation ‘exams’. They take place at the end of a course, or, in the case of a modular exam, at the end of a chunk of the course. Continuous assessment is a different concept to a final exam, as it takes place during the course and can be based, for example, on a pupil's contribution in lessons.

National tests in England at ...

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