About the SeriesThe SAGE Key Concepts series provides students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension.Key Concepts in Education provides students with over 100 essential themes, topics and expressions that Education students are likely to encounter, both during their courses and beyond in professional practice. Co-authored to draw on experiences of working within academia, local authorities and the classroom, the entries provide:a definition of the concepta description of the historical and practical contextan explanation of how the concept is appliedan evaluation of the concepthelpful references and suggested further readingThis book will be essential reading for students of Education, and an invaluable reference tool for their professional careers. About the AuthorsFred Inglis is Emeritus Professor of Cultural Studies, University of Sheffield. Lesley Aers is a senior member of a local authority school improvement service and an Ofsted inspector. Both authors are former schoolteachers.
Childhood is a far from fixed category, although it was probably the wide circulation of the Christian gospels after the fifth century CE or so which first gave the concept moral and religious force. Nonetheless, as Philippe Ariès, historian of childhood, points out, in almost all paintings up to the middle of the eighteenth century children appear as miniature adults, wearing cut-down versions of their parents’ clothes, mostly playing (as in Brueghel's famous painting Children's Games) with their parents' utensils or with a tiny number of ritual toys (tops and whips, rag dolls, skipping ropes).
Certainly until the mid-nineteenth century, children were pressed into work, especially in poor families, by the time they were five or six, and were until some years older regarded as ...