Key Concepts in Economic Geography is a new kind of textbook that forms part of an innovative set of companion texts for the human geography sub-disciplines. Organized around 20 short essays, this book provides a cutting edge introduction to the central concepts that define contemporary research in economic geography. Involving detailed and expansive discussions, the book includes:
An introductory chapter providing a succinct overview of the recent developments in the field; Over 20 key concept entries with comprehensive explanations, definitions, and evolutions of the subject; Extensive pedagogic features that enhance understanding including figures, diagrams, and further reading
An ideal companion text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in economic geography, the book presents the key concepts in the discipline, demonstrating their historical roots, and contemporary applications to fully understand the processes of economic change, regional growth and decline, globalization, and the changing locations of firms and industries. Written by an internationally recognized set of authors, the book is an essential addition to any geography student's library.
Chapter 3.2: Industrial Clusters
Industrial agglomerations (also known as industrial districts or clusters) are geographic concentrations of economic activities. These agglomerations have been traditionally understood as outcomes of the economic savings made possible through reductions in the average costs of production or service provision due to spatial proximity. These savings are known as external economies of scale. Various typologies of industrial districts exist in the literature, although these typologies should be regarded as ideal types. Industrial agglomerations are simultaneously an aspect of uneven development and specialization, and serve as important locales of job creation and innovation.
Agglomerations: Economies and Externalities
Fundamental to an understanding of industrial agglomerations is the notion of external economies of scale. Economies of scale refer to cost savings in per-unit inputs when certain scale ...