The public believes that juveniles are to blame for the growth of violence in the United States that began in the mid-1980s. But, whoÆs really to blame for violent crime? Is youth gang involvement in trafficking crack cocaine in inner-cities a key factor? The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America explores how juvenile offenders have taken the brunt of crime policyÆs reaction to the high level and recent increase in violent crime in the United States. In the justice system today, juveniles are being tried with adults in criminal courts and incarcerated with them in adult prisons. Taking a historical approach and reviewing current research, author James C. Howell examines the shift in crime policy from an emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation to punishment and how that change is neither philosophically sound nor effective. Long-term solutions, Howell argues, lie in the development of more effective programs, better-matched offender treatment programs, and a more cost-effective juvenile justice system. Written with compassion yet methodologically sound, this volume creates a comprehensive framework that will help communities incorporate best practices and utilize knowledge of risk and protective factors for serious and violent delinquency. Author James C. Howell combines prevention and graduated sanctions in this sensible strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America is an outstanding resource and text for not only graduate students but also academics, researchers, practitioners, policymakers, professionals in the legal system, and educators.
Chapter 8: The Case for Developmental Criminology
The Case for Developmental Criminology
This chapter reviews briefly the history of developmental criminology and then highlights recent contributions of this approach to criminological research. The purpose is to show the value of developmental criminology in understanding the career of the serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offender. This is important for both research and program development purposes.
Chronic Juvenile and Adult Offending
The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (Farrington, 1995; Farrington & West, 1990), a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 London males from ages 8 to 32, provides valuable information on the link between juvenile and adult chronic offending. Based on the results of this landmark study, Farrington succinctly described the life cycle of delinquency, adult criminality, and regeneration:
The Cambridge study ...