The public believes that juveniles are to blame for the growth of violence in the United States that began in the mid-1980s. But, whoÆs really to blame for violent crime? Is youth gang involvement in trafficking crack cocaine in inner-cities a key factor? The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America explores how juvenile offenders have taken the brunt of crime policyÆs reaction to the high level and recent increase in violent crime in the United States. In the justice system today, juveniles are being tried with adults in criminal courts and incarcerated with them in adult prisons. Taking a historical approach and reviewing current research, author James C. Howell examines the shift in crime policy from an emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation to punishment and how that change is neither philosophically sound nor effective. Long-term solutions, Howell argues, lie in the development of more effective programs, better-matched offender treatment programs, and a more cost-effective juvenile justice system. Written with compassion yet methodologically sound, this volume creates a comprehensive framework that will help communities incorporate best practices and utilize knowledge of risk and protective factors for serious and violent delinquency. Author James C. Howell combines prevention and graduated sanctions in this sensible strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America is an outstanding resource and text for not only graduate students but also academics, researchers, practitioners, policymakers, professionals in the legal system, and educators.

Removing Juveniles from the Juvenile Justice System

Removing juveniles from the juvenile justice system

During the first half of the past 30 years, juvenile justice policy debates focused mainly on the front end of the juvenile justice system, on such issues as decriminalization of status offenses, due process for juveniles, deinstitutionalization, and diversion. Policy debates have shifted recently to the back end of the system, to the question of whether or not serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders should remain in the juvenile justice system or be transferred1 to the criminal justice system. Several developments led to this change in focus on juvenile justice issues.

The 1960s saw the initiation of a major reform movement aimed at formalizing the juvenile justice system. It began with the President's ...

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