The public believes that juveniles are to blame for the growth of violence in the United States that began in the mid-1980s. But, whoÆs really to blame for violent crime? Is youth gang involvement in trafficking crack cocaine in inner-cities a key factor? The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America explores how juvenile offenders have taken the brunt of crime policyÆs reaction to the high level and recent increase in violent crime in the United States. In the justice system today, juveniles are being tried with adults in criminal courts and incarcerated with them in adult prisons. Taking a historical approach and reviewing current research, author James C. Howell examines the shift in crime policy from an emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation to punishment and how that change is neither philosophically sound nor effective. Long-term solutions, Howell argues, lie in the development of more effective programs, better-matched offender treatment programs, and a more cost-effective juvenile justice system. Written with compassion yet methodologically sound, this volume creates a comprehensive framework that will help communities incorporate best practices and utilize knowledge of risk and protective factors for serious and violent delinquency. Author James C. Howell combines prevention and graduated sanctions in this sensible strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America is an outstanding resource and text for not only graduate students but also academics, researchers, practitioners, policymakers, professionals in the legal system, and educators.
Chapter 2: Landmark Federal Legislation
Landmark Federal Legislation
This chapter reviews the fourth juvenile justice reform movement, delinquency prevention and provision of alternatives to the juvenile justice system. It culminated in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (JJDP) Act of 1974 (P.L. 93–415). This federal legislation wrought the most significant and controversial advances in the evolution of the juvenile justice system.
Developments chronicled in Chapter 1—the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967a), the National Council on Crime and Delinquency (NCCD) Corrections Survey (1967), the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals (1973), and several Supreme Court Decisions—led to a new federal presence in the juvenile delinquency field in the form of the landmark JJDP Act. This act, however, was preceded by federal legislation ...