The public believes that juveniles are to blame for the growth of violence in the United States that began in the mid-1980s. But, whoÆs really to blame for violent crime? Is youth gang involvement in trafficking crack cocaine in inner-cities a key factor? The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America explores how juvenile offenders have taken the brunt of crime policyÆs reaction to the high level and recent increase in violent crime in the United States. In the justice system today, juveniles are being tried with adults in criminal courts and incarcerated with them in adult prisons. Taking a historical approach and reviewing current research, author James C. Howell examines the shift in crime policy from an emphasis on treatment and rehabilitation to punishment and how that change is neither philosophically sound nor effective. Long-term solutions, Howell argues, lie in the development of more effective programs, better-matched offender treatment programs, and a more cost-effective juvenile justice system. Written with compassion yet methodologically sound, this volume creates a comprehensive framework that will help communities incorporate best practices and utilize knowledge of risk and protective factors for serious and violent delinquency. Author James C. Howell combines prevention and graduated sanctions in this sensible strategy for dealing with serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. The Evolution of Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence in America is an outstanding resource and text for not only graduate students but also academics, researchers, practitioners, policymakers, professionals in the legal system, and educators.

Juvenile Reform Movements

Juvenile reform movements

Four major reform movements have given rise to and shaped the juvenile justice system in the United States. The first movement resulted in the establishment of institutions for juveniles, removing them from confinement in prisons with adults. Creation of the juvenile court at the end of the 19th century represents the second reform movement. The third flourished in the mid-20th century with the development of alternatives to both institutions and juvenile courts. The current and fourth reform movement replicates, in large part, the first one. Its advocates urge increased use of confinement and returning serious juvenile offenders to adult prisons.

The First Juvenile Justice Reform Movement: Moralists

Before the 1800s, the United States had no juvenile justice system. Criminal cases involving children ...

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