Issues in Peace and Conflict Studies: Selections from CQ Researcher
Publication Year: 2011
Do nation-states have a “Responsibility to Protect”? Can countries heal after atrocities? Who should clean up after conflicts end? These questions—and many more—are at the heart of peace and conflict studies. This collection aims to promote in-depth discussion, facilitate further research and help readers formulate their own positions on crucial issues. It is intended to be a supplement for courses in peace and conflict studies that are offered in departments of psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, and across all social science disciplines.
About CQ Researcher Readers
In the tradition of nonpartisanship and current analysis that is the hallmark of CQ Press, CQ Researcher readers investigate important and controversial policy issues. Offer your students the balanced reporting, complete overviews, and engaging writing that CQ Researcher has consistently provided ...
- Front Matter
- Chapter 1: World Peacekeeping: Do Nation-States Have a “Responsibility to Protect”?
- Will the World Support the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine?
- Are Regional Peacekeepers Effective?
- Should Peace-Building Replace Peacekeeping?
- Late Arrival
- Congo Quagmire
- Failed Missions
- Successful Missions
- Current Situation
- Force Expansion
- China and Sudan
- Afghanistan and Beyond
- Is the World Ready?
- Chapter 2: Separatist Movements: Should Nations Have a Right to Self-Determination?
- Should There Be a Right of Self-Determination?
- Are Globalization and Regional Integration Fueling Separatism?
- Does Separatism Lead to More Violent Conflict?
- Emerging Nations
- Ethno-Centrism Surges
- Current Situation
- Balkan Pandora's Box
- Frozen Conflicts
- Asian Disputes
- Secession in the Americas
- Ethnocentric Separatism
- Chapter 3: Nuclear Disarmament: Will President Obama's Efforts Make the U.S. Safer?
- Can All Nuclear Weapons Be Eliminated?
- Should the United States End Nuclear Testing?
- Does the United States Need New Nuclear Weapons?
- Dawn of Arms Race
- Early Agreements
- New Directions
- Opportunities and Threats
- Current Situation
- Reshaping U.S. Forces
- North Korea and Iran
- New START with Russia
- Tipping Point?
- Chapter 4: Future of NATO: Is the Transatlantic Alliance Obsolete?
- Is NATO Obsolete?
- Should Energy Security Become a New NATO Responsibility?
- Can NATO Effectively Address International Terrorism?
- Internal Differences
- Guarding the Gap
- France Pulls Out
- Enlarging NATO
- Current Situation
- Slowing Expansion
- ‘A Beast with 100 Heads’
- New Strategic Concept
- Chapter 5: Anti-Semitism in Europe: Are Israel's Policies Spurring a New Wave of Hate Crimes?
- Is Anti-Semitism on the Rise in Europe?
- Is Anti-Zionism a Cover-Up for Anti-Semitism?
- Is Anti-Semitism as Severe as Racial Discrimination Against Other Minorities in Europe?
- ‘Blood Libel’ Slander
- Restricting Jewish Refugees
- Forged ‘Protocols’
- Holocaust Denial
- Postwar Poland's Anti-Semitism
- Facing the Holocaust
- Anti-Semitism Re-Emerges
- International Action
- Current Situation
- Britain Reacts
- French Anti-Semitism?
- Growing Discomfort
- Chapter 6: Crisis in Darfur: Is There Any Hope for Peace?
- Has Genocide Occurred in Darfur?
- Would Arresting Sudanese President Bashir Do More Harm Than Good?
- Is China Blocking Peace in Darfur?
- Ostrich Feathers, Ivory and Slaves
- Independence and Instability
- Another Civil War
- Darfur Erupts
- Current Situation
- Indicting Bashir
- International Betrayal
- Mission Impossible?
- Bleak Future
- Chapter 7: Crisis in Pakistan: Can the Fragile Democracy Survive?
- Can Pakistan Control Its Radical Militants?
- Can Democracy Survive in Pakistan?
- Are Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Secure?
- Early Beginnings
- Quest for Democracy
- Taliban Gathers Strength
- Current Situation
- Fighting Intensifies
- Opposing the U.S.
- Obama Optimism
- Doomsday Scenarios
- Chapter 8: Middle East Peace Prospects: Is There Any Hope for Long-Term Peace?
- Is a Two-State Solution Still a Viable Possibility?
- Has the “Roadmap for Peace” Become a Fig Leaf for Inaction?
- Can the Palestinians Form a National Unity Government?
- Decades of Deadlock
- Peace Accords
- War on Terror
- Current Situation
- U.S. Role
- Israel's Role
- Palestinians' Role
- ‘Mammoth Job’
- Chapter 9: The Troubled Horn of Africa: Can the War-Torn Region Be Stabilized?
- Is There a Real Threat of International Terrorism from Somalia?
- Is Somalia a Viable State?
- Should the United States Reconsider Its Policies Toward Ethiopia?
- Christian Kingdoms
- Rise of Dictatorships
- Civil Wars
- Somalia's Descent
- One-Party Rule
- Current Situation
- Fledgling Government
- Standoff Continues
- Unresolved Conflicts
- Chapter 10: U.S.-China Relations: Is a Future Confrontation Looming?
- Is a U.S.-China Partnership Actually Possible?
- Is a Confrontation with China Inevitable, as Some Predict?
- Has China's “Market Authoritarian” Model of Government Emerged as an Alternative to Western Democracy?
- Presidential Challenges
- All Business
- An ‘Edgy’ Game
- Current Situation
- Tense Beginning
- The Taiwan Question
- Chapter 11: Aiding Refugees: Should the U.N. Help More Displaced People?
- Is the U.N. Meeting Refugees' Needs?
- Should the Refugee Convention Be Updated?
- Should the United States Admit More Iraqi Refugees?
- Refugee Rights and Needs
- Rising Displacements
- Current Situation
- ‘Responsibility to Protect’
- Focusing on IDPs
- Environmental Refugees
- Chapter 12: Truth Commissions: Can Countries Heal After Atrocities?
- Do Truth Commissions Produce Accurate Records of the Past?
- Can Truth Commissions Reconcile Individuals and Societies?
- Are Truth Commissions More Effective Than Trials?
- From Constantinople to the Hague
- Truth vs. Justice
- “Justice on the Grass”
- Current Situation
- Publicizing Results
- Traditional vs. International Justice
- Future TRCs?
- Jurisdictional Battles
- Chapter 13: Dangerous War Debris: Who Should Clean Up After Conflicts End?
- Should the United States Join the Landmine and Cluster Bomb Treaties?
- Is Enough Being Done to Destroy Banned Toxic Weapons?
- Is the World Doing Enough to Help ERW Victims?
- Ancient ‘Landmines’
- New Warfare
- Banning ‘Silent Killers’
- Current Situation
- Global Success
- Banning Cluster Bombs
- Winning the War?
- Chapter 14: Prosecuting Terrorists: Should Suspected Terrorists Be Given Military or Civil Trials?
- Should Suspected Terrorists Be Tried in Civilian Courts?
- Should Suspected Terrorists Be Tried in Military Tribunals?
- Should Some Guantánamo Detainees Be Held Indefinitely without Trial?
- Power and Precedent
- Challenge and Response
- Change and Continuity
- Current Situation
- Watching Appeals
- Making a Deal?
- Bringing Justice to Bear
- Chapter 15: Caring for Veterans: Does the VA Adequately Serve Wounded Vets?
- Is the VA Benefits System Broken Beyond Repair?
- Is the VA Adjusting to the Needs of 21st-Century Combat and Technology?
- Is the VA Improving Rapidly Enough?
- The Big Change
- Vietnam's Neglected Vets
- Chemicals and Radiation
- 21st-Century Wounds
- Current Situation
- ‘Presumptive’ Diseases
- Legal Benefits
- Aiding Caregivers
- National Priority?
- Chapter 16: Attacking Piracy: Can the Growing Global Threat Be Stopped?
- Can Navies Defeat Piracy?
- Should Shipping Crews Be Armed?
- Should Shipowners Pay Ransom?
- Piracy's ‘Golden Age’
- Barbary Piracy
- Cold War's End
- Asian Straits
- Growth in Somalia
- Current Situation
- Organized Gangs
- Defensive Maneuvers
- No Quick Fix
- Chapter 17: Terrorism and the Internet: Should Web Sites That Promote Terrorism Be Shut Down?
- Should Governments Block Terrorist Web Sites?
- Should Internet Companies Do More to Stop Terrorists' Use of the Web?
- Does Cyberterrorism Pose a Serious Threat?
- Growth and Evolution
- From Web 1.0 to 2.0
- Terrorists and Cybercrime
- Current Situation
- Alternative Voices
- The Sakinah Campaign
- Government-Funded Sites
- Pooling Resources
- Chapter 18: Climate Change: Will the Copenhagen Accord Slow Global Warming?
- Is the Copenhagen Accord a Meaningful Step Forward in the Fight Against Global Warming?
- Is the U.N.'s Climate Change Negotiating Framework Outdated?
- Would a Carbon Tax Reduce Emissions More Effectively?
- Road to Copenhagen
- Climate and Culture
- The Doubters
- Untangling the Threads
- Current Situation
- Next Steps
- Too Late?
- Chapter 19: Confronting Rape as a War Crime: Will a New U.N. Campaign Have Any Impact?
- Is Rape an Inevitable Consequence of War?
- Can the Global Community Stop Strategic Rape?
- Does Speaking Out About Strategic Rape Do More Harm Than Good?
- Spoils of War
- Rape and Ethnic Cleansing
- Political Rape
- All Talk, No Action?
- Current Situation
- Demanding Accountability
- Victims' Voices
- No End in Sight
Copyright © 2011 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Issues in peace and conflict studies : selections from CQ researcher.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-9291-6 (pbk.)
1. Conflict management. 2. Peace. 3. Arms control.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Editorial Assistant: Sarita Sarak
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Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Marketing Manager: Stephanie Adams
Annotated Contents[Page ix]Political and Philosophical IssuesWorld Peacekeeping: Do Nation-States: Have a “Responsibility to Protect”?
After the United Nations arose from the ashes of the Holocaust, the world's collective vow “Never again” seemed ironclad and irrevocable. As part of its effort to prevent future wars and genocides, the U.N. began to station peacekeepers around the globe, beginning in 1948 in Jerusalem. But the peacekeeping missions have had limited success. Now, prompted by the horror of the killings in Rwanda and Darfur, and before that in Bosnia, the world body has adopted a controversial new concept — the Responsibility to Protect — designed to stop future catastrophes. Known as R2P, it holds that the world community has a moral duty to halt genocide — even inside a sovereign country. But detractors call R2P legal imperialism, and even its defenders admit that the rhetoric has not yet translated into meaningful aid for Darfur. Other international alliances, meanwhile, have stepped up to provide military muscle to keep the peace in other hotspots, including NATO and the European and African unions.Separatist Movements: Should Nations Have a Right to Self-Determination?
When Kosovo declared its independence on Feb. 17, 2008, thousands of angry Serbs took to the streets to protest the breakaway regions secession from Serbia. Less than a month later, Chinese authorities battled Buddhist monks in Lhasa, the legendary capital of Tibet, where separatist resentments have been simmering since China occupied the Himalayan region more than 50 years ago. The protests were the latest flashpoints in some two dozen separatist “hot spots” — the most active of roughly 70 such movements around the globe. They are part of a post-World War II [Page x]independence trend that has produced a nearly fourfold jump in the number of countries worldwide, with 26 of those new countries emerging just since 1990. Some nations, like the far-flung Kurds and the Sri Lankan Tamils, are fighting fiercely to establish a homeland, while others — like Canada's Quebecois — seem content with local autonomy. A handful have become de facto states that are as-yet-unrecognized by the U.N., including Somaliland, Taiwan, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh.Nuclear Disarmament: Will President Obama's Efforts Make the U.S. Safer?
Peace activists have sought to eliminate nuclear weapons for decades, but now they have a new ally. President Barack Obama has pledged to negotiate new U.S.-Russian arms reductions, end U.S. nuclear testing and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in national defense policy. Obama argues that these steps, plus new measures to combat nuclear smuggling and theft, will make the United States safer. But critics say further nuclear cuts will embolden rogue countries like North Korea and Iran, which are widely thought to be seeking nuclear capabilities. Although the U.S. and Russia have drastically shrunk their Cold War arsenals, the United States still spends at least $52 billion annually on nuclear-related programs. Liberals and conservatives sharply disagree about addressing post-Cold War security threats with nuclear arms. But some experts warn that new, regional nuclear arms races could break out if the U.S. fails to rebuild global support for nuclear reductions.Future of NATO: Is the Transatlantic Alliance Obsolete?
During the Cold War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was the West's line of defense against possible Soviet aggression. But the end of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the disappearance of NATO's communist equivalent — the Warsaw Pact — raised doubts about NATO's relevance. Nearly 20 years later, the specter of obsolescence still hangs over the venerable 26-nation alliance. So-called “Atlanticists” in both the United States and Europe say NATO's role in keeping the United States tied strategically to Europe justifies the alliance's continued existence. Moreover, NATO makes Moscow uneasy, and that's a good thing, they say. Others feel NATO should “earn its keep” by assuming new military responsibilities, such as protecting global energy-supply routes. But one thing is certain: It's not your grandfather's alliance. Since the 1990s, nearly a dozen former Soviet states and Soviet-bloc nations have joined NATO, easing their transition to democracy. NATO also has expanded its operations beyond Europe to Afghanistan, which may become the 60-year-old alliance's ultimate testing ground.Crises, Conflicts, and Peace Prospects Around the WorldAnti-Semitism in Europe: Are Israel's Policies Spurring a New Wave of Hate Crimes?
A wave of anti-Jewish attacks on individuals and synagogues has beset Europe since 2000, when the second Palestinian uprising against Israel's occupation began. In France anti-Semitic youth gangs recently abducted and tortured two young Jewish men, one of whom was murdered. European soccer fans routinely taunt Jewish teams with Hitler salutes and chants, such as “Hamas, Hamas, Jews to the gas!” And while anti-Semitic attacks overall dipped slightly in some countries, violent assaults on individuals spiked last year, reaching a record high in Britain. Some scholars worry that the “new anti-Semitism” incorporates anti-Zionist language, which has become increasingly acceptable — particularly among Palestinian sympathizers in academia and the media. But Israel's critics — some of whom are Jewish — warn that calling people anti-Semitic because they oppose Israel's treatment of the Palestinians confuses the public. If the charge is made too often, they suggest, people will become cynical and won't recognize genocidal evil when it occurs.Crisis in Darfur: Is There Any Hope for Peace?
More than two years after government and rebel fighters signed a peace agreement in Sudan, violence is still rampant in Darfur. At least 2.4 million people have been displaced and up to 400,000 have died since 2003. And observers say the situation is getting worse. Rebel groups have splintered into more than a dozen warring factions, bandits are attacking relief workers, and drought threatens to make next year among the deadliest in Darfur's history. Despite pressure from religious and human-rights groups, the international community seems unable — or unwilling — to find a lasting solution. A year after the U.N. authorized the world's largest peacekeeping force in Darfur, only 37 percent of the authorized personnel have [Page xi]been deployed, and no military helicopters have been provided. The International Criminal Court is considering genocide charges against Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, but some fear an indictment would trigger more violence than justice. Some say China, Sudan's largest trading partner and arms supplier, should pressure Sudan to end the violence.Crisis in Pakistan: Can the Fragile Democracy Survive?
South Asia experts warn that Pakistan — recently dubbed “the new center of the war against terrorism”— could become the world's first nuclear-armed “failed state.” The Muslim country's new president faces a spike in terrorist bombings, rising Islamic fundamentalism, a weakened democracy and a faltering economy. Already, more people have been killed in suicide bombings in Pakistan during the first eight months of 2008 than in Iraq or Afghanistan. And Indian authorities suspect that Islamic terrorists from Pakistan-controlled Kashmir perpetrated the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks that killed 173 people. Another challenge for President Asif Ali Zardari and his relatively young nation: growing resentment about recent U.S. military incursions into terrorist-infested Pakistani tribal territories. Although the country has weathered many storms since its founding in 1947, experts wonder if recent developments threaten its survival. As the new administration tries to hold the disparate nation together, a strong military — with a long history of usurping civilian rule — is poised to take over once again. The world watches with growing concern to see if the fragile democracy can survive or if Pakistan — with its nuclear arsenal — will devolve into chaos.Middle East Peace Prospects: Is There Any Hope for Long-Term Peace?
Three major events reshaped the political landscape of the Middle East during a seven-week period beginning in late 2008. Israel launched a devastating 22-day assault on Gaza to halt ongoing Palestinian rocket and mortar fire, Israeli parliamentary elections displayed growing disenchantment with the peace process and President Barack Obama moved into the White House promising to try to help resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict after more than six decades of violence. Obama's pledge raised hopes in some quarters for a revival of peace talks — in limbo since the controversial Gaza war began on December 27. But Israel's political shift to the right and deep, continuing Palestinian divisions raise the prospect of continued stalemate. Years of talks and several interim agreements have failed to encourage either side that they can eventually get what they want. Israelis, pursuing security, remain the target of militant attacks, while impoverished Palestinians — seeking a state of their own — remain under effective Israeli control.The Troubled Horn of Africa: Can the War-Torn Region Be Stabilized?
Plagued by conflict, poverty and poor governance, the Horn of Africa is arguably the most troubled corner of the world's poorest continent. In desperately poor Somalia, an 18-year civil war has forced more than a million people from their homes, leaving behind a safe haven for pirates and, possibly, Islamic terrorists. In Ethiopia, an increasingly authoritarian, Western-backed government has jailed opposition leaders and clamped down on the press and human rights activists. In tiny Eritrea, a government that once won the admiration of legions of Western diplomats and journalists for its self-sufficiency and discipline has become an isolated dictatorship. The recent withdrawal of Ethiopian troops from Somalia and the election of a moderate leader to the country's transitional government have raised international hopes that the lawlessness there will be brought under control. But Somalia's new government faces an insurgency from radical Islamists and worldwide pressure to stop the increasingly aggressive pirates who terrorize cargo ship crews off Somalia's coast and find refuge in its seaside villages.U.S.-China Relations: Is a Future Confrontation Looming?
Disputes that have bedeviled relations between the United States and China for decades flared up again following President Obama's decision to sell weapons to Taiwan and receive Tibet's revered Dalai Lama. From the U.S. perspective, China's refusal to raise the value of its currency is undermining America's — and Europe's — economic recovery. Beijing also rebuffed Obama's proposal of “a partnership on the big global issues of our time.” In addition, the Chinese insist on tackling their pollution problems in their own way, and have been reluctant to support U.S. diplomatic efforts to impose tough sanctions on nuclear-minded Iran. With the central bank of China holding more than $800 billion of the U.S. national debt in the form of Treasury notes, and their economy [Page xii]speeding along at a 9 percent growth rate, the Chinese are in no mood to be accommodating.Coping with the AftermathAiding Refugees: Should the U.N. Help More Displaced People?
Some 42 million people worldwide have been uprooted by warfare or other violence, including 16 million refugees who are legally protected because they left their home countries. Most live in refugee camps and receive aid from the United Nations or other agencies but cannot work or leave the camps without special permission. Another 26 million people who fled violence are not protected by international treaties because they remained in their home countries. The number of such “internally displaced persons” (IDPs) has risen in the last decade, largely due to wars in Africa, Iraq, Afghanistan and Colombia. Millions of IDPs live in harsh conditions, and many receive no aid. Some critics say the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees should do much more for IDPs, but the agency already faces severe budget shortfalls and bleak prospects for more donations from wealthy nations. Meanwhile, scientists warn that the number of people displaced by natural disasters — now about 50 million a year — could rise dramatically in coming years due to climate change.Truth Commissions: Can Countries Heal After Atrocities?
After war and unspeakable violence, countries around the world face the challenge of moving forward while dealing with the past. But what should justice look like? From Bosnia to Burundi, from Argentina to Timor-Leste, millions of people around the world have been brutalized by genocide, torture, kidnappings and disappearances of loved ones — often at the hands of their own governments and countrymen. Today countries have a variety of legal options, known as transitional justice, including truth commissions — official panels that investigate atrocities and create authoritative records of past abuses. Truth-telling can foster social healing and reconciliation, supporters say, but early research suggests that results have been mixed. Other countries seek justice through international trials or tribunals. In the end, justice — however it is sought — seeks to expose the truth, protect human rights and pave a path to democracy.Dangerous War Debris: Who Should Clean Up After Conflicts End?
Long after the guns of war have gone silent, people around the world are killed or maimed every day by the “silent killers” of warfare — the tens of millions of landmines, cluster bombs and other unexploded ordnance that litter abandoned battlefields, farmland and urban areas. Most of the victims are civilians, and many are children. Besides claiming more than 5,000 victims each year, dangerous war debris also prevents war refugees from returning to their homelands, stifles fragile economies and prevents farmers from planting crops or developers from investing in a nations future. Many nations and organizations help the victims and work to ban, remove and disarm landmines and other “explosive remnants of war” (ERW). But questions are being asked about how best to help victims and whether enough is being done to destroy ERWs and stockpiles of banned chemical weapons.Prosecuting Terrorists: Should Suspected Terrorists Be Given Military or Civil Trials?
President Obama is under fierce political attack for the administration's decision to try Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the alleged mastermind of the Sept. 11 attacks, and Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the so-called Christmas Day bomber, in civilian courts instead of military tribunals. Republican lawmakers argue the defendants in both cases should be treated as “enemy combatants” and tried in the military commissions established during the Bush administration. Administration officials and Democratic lawmakers say criminal prosecutions are more effective, having produced hundreds of convictions since 9/11 compared to only three in the military system. And they insist that Abdulmutallab is providing useful information under interrogation by FBI agents. But the administration is reconsidering Attorney General Eric Holder's original decision to hold Mohammed's trial in New York City and considering making greater use of military commissions with other terrorism cases.Caring for Veterans: Does the VA Adequately Serve Wounded Vets?
Battle-scarred veterans often spend more time waiting for decisions from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) on their disability claims than they spent at war. At least 500,000 veterans have waited an average of six [Page xiii]months for a decision on a disability claim and another 200,000 have waited an average of five years for a decision on an appeal. New VA Secretary Eric Shinseki — himself a disabled Vietnam vet — vows to unblock the huge claims backlog, but it may take until 2015. That's partly because the VA has expanded the number of compensation-worthy illnesses from the Vietnam War. Veterans' organizations laud Shinseki but disagree over how deeply VA changes should run. Meanwhile, lawmakers in Congress are close to passing legislation to compensate relatives and friends caring for veterans with catastrophic, lifelong disabilities such as traumatic brain injuries arising from improvised explosive devices — the devastating homemade bombs that are the hallmark of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.Special TopicsAttacking Piracy: Can the Growing Global Threat Be Stopped?
After centuries of inactivity, piracy has returned with a vengeance. Maritime marauders now operate across the globe from Peru to the Philippines, but they pose the biggest threat off the coast of Somalia — a failed state in the Horn of Africa. In the first six months of 2009, attacks by Somali pirates jumped sixfold over the same period last year. Piracy costs global shippers $10 billion to $50 billion a year in ransoms, lost cargoes, higher insurance premiums and disrupted shipping schedules — costs that are passed on to consumers. The world's largest navies have sent warships to the Horn of Africa in recent months and have captured more than 100 pirates. But it may be too costly to maintain the naval patrols over the long term. In addition, murky anti-piracy laws and jurisdictional issues are hampering prosecutions. Moreover, some security experts fear pirates may be exposing vulnerabilities that terrorists could exploit to disrupt global trade, raising the stakes in the fight to solve a growing international problem.Terrorism and the Internet: Should Web Sites That Promote Terrorism Be Shut Down?
A decade ago, terrorist organizations operated or controlled only about a dozen Web sites. Today there are more than 7,000. Terrorist groups use the Internet for many activities, ranging from raising funds to explaining how to build a suicide bomb. They find the Internet appealing for the same reasons everyone else does: It's cheap, easily accessible, unregulated and reaches a potentially enormous audience. As terrorist content spreads to chat rooms, blogs, user groups, social networking sites and virtual worlds, many experts, politicians and law enforcement officials are debating how government and industry should respond. Some want Internet companies to stop terrorists from using the Web, while others say that is not the role of Internet service providers. As governments enact laws based on the belief that the Internet plays a significant role in promoting terrorism, critics say the new measures often overstep free-speech and privacy rights.Climate Change: Will the Copenhagen Accord Slow Global Warming?
Delegates from around the globe arrived in Copenhagen, Denmark, for the U.N. Climate Change Conference in December hoping to forge a significant agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and temper climate change. But despite years of diplomatic preparation, two weeks of intense negotiations and the clamor for action from thousands of protesters outside the meeting, the conferees adopted no official treaty. Instead, a three-page accord — cobbled together on the final night by President Barack Obama and the leaders of China, India, Brazil and South Africa — established only broad, nonbinding goals and postponed tough decisions. Yet defenders of the accord praised it for requiring greater accountability from emerging economies such as China, protecting forests and committing billions in aid to help poorer nations. But the key question remains: Will the accord help U.N. efforts to forge a legally binding climate change treaty for the world's nations?Confronting Rape as a War Crime: Will a New U.N. Campaign Have Any Impact?
Rape has been a consequence of military defeat for millennia. But in the last 20 years — from Bosnia to Rwanda, from Colombia to the Democratic Republic of Congo — sexual violence against women, and sometimes even against men, has become a strategic military tactic designed to humiliate victims and shatter enemy societies. And increasingly, governments presiding over peaceful countries are using mass rape in deliberate and [Page xiv]targeted campaigns to spread terror and humiliation among political dissenters, often during election seasons. The strategic use of rape has been recognized by international courts as an act of genocide and ethnic cleansing. The United Nations is working to change the mindset that wartime rape is inevitable, urging governments to end the violence and prosecute perpetrators. But silence and shame shroud the issue, and some governments that deny wartime rape occurs in their countries have banned international aid groups that treat their citizens who have been victimized. This spring, the United Nations' first special representative for sexual violence began a two-year campaign to help curb the crime. But experts say strategic rape won't be easy to eradicate.
Do nation-states have a “Responsibility to Protect”? Can countries heal after atrocities? Who should clean up after conflicts end? These questions—and many more—are at the heart of peace and conflict studies. How can instructors best engage students with these crucial issues? We feel that students need objective, yet provocative examinations of these issues to understand how they affect society today and will for years to come. This collection aims to promote in-depth discussion, facilitate further research and help readers formulate their own positions on crucial issues. Get your students talking both inside and outside the classroom about issues in peace and conflict studies.
This first edition includes nineteen up-to-date reports by CQ Researcher, an award-winning weekly policy brief that brings complicated issues down to earth. Each report chronicles and analyzes executive, legislative and judicial activities at all levels of government.CQ Researcher
CQ Researcher was founded in 1923 as Editorial Research Reports and was sold primarily to newspapers as a research tool. The magazine was renamed and redesigned in 1991 as CQ Researcher. Today, students are its primary audience. While still used by hundreds of journalists and newspapers, many of which reprint portions of the reports, the Researcher's main subscribers are now high school, college and public libraries. In 2002, Researcher won the American Bar Associations coveted Silver Gavel award for magazine excellence for a series of nine reports on civil liberties and other legal issues.
[Page xvi]Researcher staff writers—all highly experienced journalists—sometimes compare the experience of writing a Researcher report to drafting a college term paper. Indeed, there are many similarities. Each report is as long as many term papers—about 11,000 words—and is written by one person without any significant outside help. One of the key differences is that writers interview leading experts, scholars and government officials for each issue.
Like students, staff writers begin the creative process by choosing a topic. Working with the Researcher's editors, the writer identifies a controversial subject that has important public policy implications. After a topic is selected, the writer embarks on one to two weeks of intense research. Newspaper and magazine articles are clipped or downloaded, books are ordered and information is gathered from a wide variety of sources, including interest groups, universities and the government. Once the writers are well informed, they develop a detailed outline, and begin the interview process. Each report requires a minimum often to fifteen interviews with academics, officials, lobbyists and people working in the field. Only after all interviews are completed does the writing begin.Chapter Format
Each issue of CQ Researcher, and therefore each selection in this book, is structured in the same way. Each begins with an overview, which briefly summarizes the areas that will be explored in greater detail in the rest of the chapter. The next section chronicles important and current debates on the topic under discussion and is structured around a number of key questions, such as “Should suspected terrorists be given military or civil trials?” or “Is rape an inevitable consequence of war?” These questions are usually the subject of much discussion among practitioners and scholars in the field. Hence, the answers presented are never conclusive but detail the range of opinion on the topic.
Next, the “Background” section provides a history of the issue being examined. This retrospective covers important legislative measures, executive actions and court decisions that illustrate how current policy has evolved. Then the “Current Situation” section examines contemporary policy issues, legislation under consideration and legal action being taken. Each selection concludes with an “Outlook” section, which addresses possible regulation, court rulings and initiatives from Capitol Hill and the White House over the next five to ten years.
Each report contains features that augment the main text: two to three sidebars that examine issues related to the topic at hand, a pro versus con debate between two experts, a chronology of key dates and events and an annotated bibliography detailing major sources used by the writer.Acknowledgments
We wish to thank many people for helping to make this collection a reality. Tom Colin, managing editor of CQ Researcher, gave us his enthusiastic support and cooperation as we developed this edition. He and his talented staff of editors and writers have amassed a first-class library of Researcher reports, and we are fortunate to have access to that rich cache. We also wish to thank our colleagues at CQ Press, a division of SAGE and a leading publisher of books, directories, research publications and Web products on U.S. government, world affairs and communications. They have forged the way in making these readers a useful resource for instruction across a range of undergraduate and graduate courses.
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Irwin Arieff is a veteran journalist now freelancing in New York City. He served for 23 years as a correspondent for the Reuters news agency in Washington, Paris, New York and the United Nations. During more than four decades as a writer and editor — including five years writing for the CQ Weekly — Arieff covered subjects ranging from international affairs, the White House and U.S. politics to science and medicine, the television industry and financial market regulation. He has a masters degree in journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School.
Brian Beary, a freelance journalist based in Washington, D.C., specializes in European Union (EU) affairs and is the U.S. correspondent for Europolitics, the EU-affairs daily newspaper. Originally from Dublin, Ireland, he worked in the European Parliament for Irish MEP Pat “The Cope” Gallagher in 2000 and at the EU Commission's Eurobarometer unit on public opinion analysis. A fluent French speaker, he appears regularly as a guest international-relations expert on television and radio programs. Beary also writes for the European Parliament Magazine and the Irish Examiner daily newspaper. One of his recent reports for CQ Global Researcher was “Race for the Arctic.”
John Felton is a freelance journalist who has written about international affairs and U.S. foreign policy for nearly 30 years. He covered foreign affairs for the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report during the 1980s, was deputy foreign editor for National Public Radio in the early 1990s and has been a freelance writer specializing in international topics for the past 15 years. His most recent book, [Page xviii]published by CQ Press, is The Contemporary Middle East: A Documentary History. He lives in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
Roland Flamini is a Washington-based correspondent who writes a foreign-affairs column for CQ Weekly. Fluent in six languages, he served as Time magazine's bureau chief in Rome, Bonn, Beirut, Jerusalem and the European Common Market and later served as international editor at United Press International. He wrote “Afghanistan on the Brink” for CQ Global Researcher.
Karen Foerstel is a freelance writer who has worked for the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and Daily Monitor, The New York Post and Roll Call, a Capitol Hill newspaper. She has published two books on women in Congress, Climbing the Hill: Gender Conflict in Congress and The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Congress. She currently lives and works in London. She has worked in Africa with ChildsLife International, a nonprofit that helps needy children around the world, and with Blue Ventures, a marine conservation organization that protects coral reefs in Madagascar.
Sarah Glazer, a London-based freelancer, is a regular contributor to the CQ Researcher. Her articles on health, education and social-policy issues have appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Public Interest and Gender and Work, a book of essays. Her recent CQ Researcher reports include “Increase in Autism” and “Gender and Learning.” She graduated from the University of Chicago with a BA in American history.
Alan Greenblatt is a staff writer at Governing magazine. He previously covered elections, agriculture and military spending for CQ Weekly, where he won the National Press Club's Sandy Hume Award for political journalism. He graduated from San Francisco State University in 1986 and received a master's degree in English literature from the University of Virginia in 1988. His recent CQ Researcher reports include “Sex Offenders” and “Pension Crisis.”
Kenneth Jost graduated from Harvard College and Georgetown University Law Center. He is the author of the Supreme Court Yearbook and editor of The Supreme Court from A to Z (both published by CQ Press). He was a member of the CQ Researcher team that won the 2002 ABA Silver Gavel Award. His recent reports include “Democracy in the Arab World” and “Religious Persecution.”
Reed Karaim, a freelance writer living in Tucson, Arizona, has written for The Washington Post, U.S. News & World Report, Smithsonian, American Scholar, USA Weekend and other publications. He is the author of the novel If Men Were Angels, which was selected for the Barnes & Noble Discover Great New Writers series. He is also the winner of the Robin Goldstein Award for Outstanding Regional Reporting and other journalism awards. Karaim is a graduate of North Dakota State University in Fargo.
Peter Katel is a CQ Researcher staff writer who previously reported on Haiti and Latin America for Time and Newsweek and covered the Southwest for newspapers in New Mexico. He has received several journalism awards, including the Bartolomé Mitre Award for coverage of drug trafficking from the Inter-American Press Association. He holds an AB in university studies from the University of New Mexico. His recent reports include “The New Philanthropy” and “War in Iraq.”
Lee Michael Katz has been a senior diplomatic correspondent for USA Today, the International Editor of UPI, and an independent policy journalist who has written lengthy articles on foreign policy, terrorism, and national security. He has reported from more than 60 countries. He holds an MS from Columbia University and has traveled frequently with the U.S. Secretary of State.
Robert Kiener is an award-winning writer whose work has appeared in the London Sunday Times, The Christian Science Monitor, The Washington Post, Reader's Digest, Time Life Books, Asia Inc. and other publications. For more than two decades he lived and worked as an editor and correspondent in Guam, Hong Kong, England and Canada and is now based in the United States. He frequently travels to Asia and Europe to report on international issues. He holds a MA in Asian Studies from Hong Kong University and an MPhil in International Relations from Cambridge University.
[Page xix]Barbara Mantel is a freelance writer in New York City whose work has appeared in The New York Times, the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology and Mamm Magazine. She is a former correspondent and senior producer for National Public Radio and has won several journalism awards, including the National Press Club's Best Consumer Journalism Award and the Front Page Award from the Newswomen's Club of New York. She holds a BA in history and economics from the University of Virginia and an MA in economics from Northwestern University.
Jason McLure is a correspondent for Bloomberg News and Newsweek based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He previously worked for Legal Times in Washington, D.C., and in Newsweek's Boston bureau. His reporting has appeared in The Economist, Business Week, the British Journalism Review and National Law Journal. His work has been honored by the Washington, D.C., chapter of the Society for Professional Journalists, the Maryland-Delaware-District of Columbia Press Association and the Overseas Press Club of America Foundation. He has a master's degree in journalism from the University of Missouri.
Jina Moore is a multimedia journalist who covers science, human rights and foreign affairs from the United States and Africa. Her work has appeared in The Christian Science Monitor, Newsweek, The Boston Globe, Foreign Policy and Best American Science Writing, among others. She was a 2009 Ochberg Fellow with the Dart Society for Journalism and Trauma and blogs at http://www.jinamoore.com.
Jennifer Weeks is a CQ Researcher contributing writer in Watertown, Massachusetts, who specializes in energy and environmental issues. She has written for The Washington Post, The Boston Globe Magazine and other publications, and has 15 years' experience as a public-policy analyst, lobbyist and congressional staffer. She has an AB degree from Williams College and master's degrees from the University of North Carolina and Harvard.[Page xx]