With the inclusion of real-world data and a host of health-related examples, this is an impressive introductory statistics text ideal for all health science and nursing students. Health and nursing students can be anxious and lacking in confidence when it comes to handling statistics. This book has been developed with this readership in mind. This accessible text avoids using long and off-putting statistical formulae in favor of non-daunting practical and SPSS-based examples. What’s more, its content will fit ideally with the common course content of stats courses in the field.

Probability

### Introduction

Whilst it may not be obvious how probability fits with health statistics, the concept of probability underlies all statistical tests, so a basic understanding of simple probability is essential so that it can be linked with these concepts. This chapter will start with defining probability using simple examples, which will then be broadened to show that simple probabilities can be used within routine health data. These concepts will be extended to the situation where two probabilities are considered: mutually exclusive events and independent events. Finally, probability will be linked to health statistics. This will be in the form of p-values.

### The Aims of This Chapter are:

• To learn what probability is.
• To learn the basic rules of probability.
• To link probability with health statistics.

### What is Probability?

Probability is the ...