With the inclusion of real-world data and a host of health-related examples, this is an impressive introductory statistics text ideal for all health science and nursing students. Health and nursing students can be anxious and lacking in confidence when it comes to handling statistics. This book has been developed with this readership in mind. This accessible text avoids using long and off-putting statistical formulae in favor of non-daunting practical and SPSS-based examples. What’s more, its content will fit ideally with the common course content of stats courses in the field.

Study Designs

Study designs


Whether carried out by students to fulfil their degree requirements or researchers and health professionals, all research studies have to be planned and the study designed in such a way that it answers the research questions. Research studies can be observational or experimental. Observational studies are those where the researcher aims to discover what conditions the participants have, their measurements and/or their opinions. None of the conditions experienced by the participants are manipulated by the researchers. This contrasts with experimental studies where many conditions are controlled by the researchers.

This chapter will describe four main types of study design which are commonly used within the healthcare setting. These are cross sectional studies, case-control studies, cohort studies and randomised controlled trials, the first three ...

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