Ideal in introductory courses dealing with grammatical structure and linguistic analysis, Introduction to Typology overviews the major grammatical categories and constructions in the world's languages. Framed in a typological perspective, the constant concern of this primary text is to underscore the similarities and differences which underlie the vast array of human languages.

Mood and Negation

Mood and negation

Mood is a grammatical category through which speakers of a language can indicate whether they believe that an event or state actually occurs, does not occur, or has the potential to occur (1). This conceptual domain is called modality.

As the sentences from Mangarayi (Australian: Australia) reveal, the actuality of the event of talking, or more precisely the speaker's estimation of the actuality, can be determined on the basis of prefixes or preverbal particles. In (1a), the utilization of a third-person realis prefix relays the fact that the talking did occur. In contrast, the prohibitive particle in (1b) indicates the nonoccurrence of the event (NB, negation interacts with other modal categories, but it does not constitute a mood category itself—further ...

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