Education, both formal and informal, is a long and arduous process. People must invest a great deal of time and energy to learn enough to achieve their goals in their own cultures. Great effort is expended in learning to speak and to write one's native language well, to discover what is needed to complete important tasks, and to learn to interact effectively with others at society's various status levels. Because people have intense investments in their knowledge, they find it upsetting to discover that some others believe educated people should possess quite different knowledge. Put another way, people learn the “facts” necessary to meet their desired goals in their own cultures, and they find it very upsetting to discover that members of ...