Intelligence Testing and Minority Students offers the reader a fresh opportunity to re-learn and re-consider the implications of intelligence testing. Richard R. Valencia and Lisa A. Suzuki discuss the strengths and limitations of IQ testing relative to the factors which may contribute to biased results. They review the history of the adaptation and adoption of intelligence testing; evaluate the heredity-environment debate; discuss the specific performance factors which apply to IQ testing of those in minority ethnic groups. This practical book offers the practitioner a good sense of what can be done to make testing and education serve the needs of all students fairly and validly, whatever their background.

Historical Issues

Historical issues

The present issues surrounding intelligence testing and minority students can be best understood by providing a historical perspective. Although the knot between the past and the present cannot be snugly tied, there are some common themes and issues that connect these temporal periods. Current issues regarding cultural bias in tests, differential reliability and validity, racial/ethnic representation in norm samples, under-representation of minority students in gifted and talented programs, test uses in decision making, and the role of genetics in intellectual performance all have historical roots (Ayres, 1911; Bagley, 1922; Wallin, 1912; see also Chapman, 1988; Valencia, 1997b).

For our discussion of historical issues, we examine the following: (a) the emergence of the intelligence testing movement in Europe, (b) the importation and cultural appropriation ...

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