Integrative Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide

Books

Maja O'Brien & Gaie Houston

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Epigraph

    So dark a mind within me dwells,

    And l make myself such evil cheer,

    That if I be dear to some one else,

    Then some one else may have much to fear;

    But if I be dear to some one else,

    Then I should be to myself more dear.

    Shall I not take care of all that I think,

    Yea ev'n of wretched meat and drink,

    If I be dear,

    If I be dear to some one else?

    Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Maud, XV

    Preface to Second Edition

    We have been encouraged by the positive response to the first edition of this book. Integrative Therapy is gaining ground within the field of psychotherapy and counselling. It is a model of choice in the training of counselling psychology and the number of integrative psychotherapy and counselling training courses are increasing year on year. Although, according to Hollanders (2003: 296), it is not possible to tell precisely how integration will develop in the coming years, the evidence points to further continuation and growth as a major movement in the therapeutic world. This trend is even more prominent in the USA (Lambert, 2004).

    In his review of the first edition of this book Stricker (2005: 235) writes:

    ‘Effective psychotherapy must have a guiding theory, informed by research and colored by experience. There is no single theory that has a premium on the truth, and integrative efforts are more likely to be of general helpfulness than any single orientation (there may be some orientation-based approaches that are particularly suited to some specific presenting problems)’.

    We hope that the integrative effort of this book, written by therapists of quite different backgrounds, will encourage the increasing trend to an informed and intelligent integration of the whole field of psychotherapy. This integration is not only of methods and theories, but of fields of study often ignored between professions. In the original book, for example, we included references to developmental psychology and psychiatric research, that so often overlaps with and supports that in our own field: separate roads were built towards Rome, where co-operation might have brought a better road, faster.

    This new version of our book has two major enlargements or additions of what we see as useful areas which need to be integrated into practitioners' knowledge. These are on research and on the neurosciences.

    We had already written on research, to inform readers about therapy outcome and process, and human development respectively, and to some extent, to alert them to be wary of what axes were being ground by whom in some existing studies. In this edition some qualitative research methodology is set out, and some encouragement to readers to have the confidence to expand the research component that is there in all reflective therapy. A ‘rapprochement between the science and humanities/arts based research’ suggested by Strawbridge and Woolfe (2003: 14) is facilitating new approaches to the study of human beings. This opens up new possibilities for theory building for and by practitioners.

    The neurosciences have come to public attention in these first years of the new century. What is gratifying is that so many of their findings support what we have written and quoted in the first edition. There is illumination rather than refutation. The very exciting field of new discovery and changing understanding, brought to us by the neuroscientists, already suggests some different treatment approaches. Every day more is known, and no doubt more change in therapist behaviour will result. We hope that this edition be of practical help to readers who need to hold on to clarity and structure, as well as respond intelligently to this ever-modulating world, where change is the one constant.

    Acknowledgements

    Our first, warm acknowledgement is to the clients, supervisees and generations of trainees who have educated, challenged and informed us as we worked together. Without them there would be no book. As well, we are very grateful for direct help from Jim Pye, who read the book and commented on it so helpfully from the point of view of a trainee in integrative therapy; Sheelagh Strawbridge, who read and commented on the chapters as they were written; Diana Sanders and Dheeresh Turnbull for reading the final manuscript; Toby Owen, who read as an outsider to the profession; and Janice Jarmain whose constant and warm support to both staff and trainees at Roehampton Institute was invaluable.

    For the help with the additions to the second edition we would like to thank Jim Pye, Sheelagh Strawbridge, Anne Marie Salm, Michael Soth, and Terry O'Brien.

  • Appendix 1: Outline of an Assessment Procedure in Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)

    The aim of assessment is to identify issues, select out inappropriate cases, ensure correct assignment within the therapy services and give the patient a taste of the process of therapy. In this model the first four sessions are seen as the assessment phase, leading to a Reformulation which the therapist gives the client in a written form at the end of the fourth session.

    The areas to be covered include those listed in the CHRAP sequence:

    C H R A P

    C Complaint

    H History

    R Reformulation

    A Aim

    P Plan

    Interview Process

    Before seeing the patient, read the referral letter and have any material such as questionnaires ready. Throughout the interview note both the content and form or style; give patients scope to lead the interview but prompt for personal meaning or feelings and try to cover all the headings. Leave the Aim (A) and the Plan (P) for the end. Watch for themes manifest during the interview.

    Start by indicating what you know from the referral, say how long you've got and what the point of the meeting is. The rest of the material need not be collected in any particular order nor is it expected that all of the material will be dealt with in an initial session. The headings that have been identified as playing a part are described below.

    (C) Complaint (Presenting Problem: Why they Come to See us)

    Is the problem offered a passport or ticket (such as a physical symptoms if seen in a medical setting) or a genuine difficulty? How did it evolve? Any previous episodes? Note implicit problems not volunteered, such as low self-esteem or pervasive guilt and try these out on the patient. Identify why the patient has come at this time and possible triggers for previous episodes. Questions to ask:

    • When did it all start?
    • What else was happening at the time?
    • Has it occurred before, when?
    • What triggers it off?
    • How does it feel like?
    • Who else knows about it? (testing for available support system)
    • Previous experience of counselling. How many times has the story been told?
    (H) History

    History-taking: gathering information as well as noting how the story is told (jokey, matter-of-fact, despairing, cynical, angry – ‘why me?’; detached, too fast – not wanting to be heard; or too slow – you are on tenterhooks).

    What is person's stance in life: also visible in posture? Listen for what is missing (no mention of parents, or one parent, or a particular period in life).

    What is the main theme: ‘I am too weak’; ‘I have to go it alone’; ‘The world owes me a living’.

    The Life-Story

    Start with the most immediate:

    Adult life: occupation; living circumstances; current and past relationships; intimate, social and work contexts. Any physical disability or illness.

    Childhood: family structure, disruptions; role models; rivalries; cruelties; abuses; major separations; family rules, beliefs. What did it feel like to be this person as a child? What sense did she/he make of the situation? What were the survival procedures: ways of coping or survival strategies? (One or two words about father, mother, grandparents.)

    Adolescence: how transition into adult life (separation from family) was negotiated (any support?); school-peer-relationships and achievement; sexual experience, orientation and problems. Enquire about use of drugs; alcohol; crime; eating disorders; any other important things.

    Important events or experiences: separation and losses, death in the family, adoption, physical and sexual abuse, religion and other beliefs.

    Ask if anything important has been left out.

    What makes your heart sing?

    History of Psychiatric Illness
    • Major depression (deliberate self-harm, parasuicide, overdosing) or other possibly psychotic episodes, previous treatments and their effects (medication, in-patient admissions, therapy – what sort, what effect?); how does the patient understand his/her problems?
    • Where there is evidence of past or present psychiatric illness therapist should either ask for a psychiatric assessment or consult with a psychiatrist with a view to getting access to psychiatric help if necessary.
    • Other: medical history, problems with drugs, crime.
    (R) Reformulation

    The essence of the assessment in this model is to enter into the subjective world of the client and to give them back their story as heard by the therapist. This has a curtain-up effect and a strong emotional impact on the client. It contains an account of client's life history around the core pain as experienced by the client and as understood by the therapist (from the heart to the head).

    Reformulation needs to include what is old as well as what is new. It is an integration of the life-story, with a logical sequence which includes the past, the present and the future. It needs to link feelings, understanding and behaviour. It stems from mutual negotiation and it is created as a living thing arising through the interactive process and a joint recognition of the core pain.

    • This is what you bring.
    • This is how you understand it.
    • This is how we understand it together.
    • This is what you and I do about it together.
    (A) Aim

    Clarify what the patient hopes to achieve from therapy and what you think you can offer.

    (P) Plan

    Work out contract details, patient availability, when to start, and where. Remind patients with suicidal ideas of Samaritans and emergency clinics.

    Ask about preference for sex or race of therapist if appropriate.

    If not suitable for you to take up, explain why and arrange to refer appropriately.

    ∗From lectures by Dr Shakir Shyam Ansari and Val Coumont during CAT training attended by one of the authors.

    Appendix 2: Participative Learning: Theory

    Here are two exercises designed to enliven the learning of theory. They might be used in conjunction with Chapter 5 in this book, or to pursue the theory that underpins several others.

    Appendix 3: Ethical Codes and Dilemmas (Chapter 4)
    Appendix 4: Why are we Here and what do we Hope to Achieve? (Chapter 5)
    Appendix 5: Questions of Time and Space (Chapter 6)

    Appendix 6: Tools of the Trade – Therapeutic Relationship (Chapters 7 and 8)

    Psychodynamic Perspective
    Humanistic Perspective

    References

    Ainsworth, M.D., Waters, M.C. and Wall, S. (1978) Patterns of Attachment: Assessed in a Strange Situation and at Home. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e550432011-004
    American Psychiatric Association (1994a) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
    4th edn
    ) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.
    American Psychiatric Association (1994b) Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, DC: APA.
    Aveline, M. and Dryden, W (eds) (1988) Group Therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Barber, P. (2006) Becoming a Practitioner Researcher: A Gestalt Approach to Holistic Inquiry. London: Middlesex University Press.
    Barkham, M. (1992) ‘Research on integrative and eclectic therapy’, in WDryden (ed.), Integrative and Eclectic Therapy: A Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Barkham, M. and Mellor-Clark, J. (2000) ‘Rigour and relevance: the role of practice-based evidence in the psychological therapies’, in N.Rowland and S.Goss (eds), Evidence-based Counselling and Psychological Therapies: Research and Application. London: Routledge
    Barron, J.W, Eagle, M.N. and Wolitzky, D.L. (eds) (1992) Interface of Psychoanalysis and Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10118-000
    Basch, M.F. (1995) ‘Kohut's contribution’, Psychoanalytic Dialogue, 5: 367–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10481889509539074
    Bateman, A. and Fonagy, P. (2001) ‘Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 158 (1): 36–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.1.36
    Bateman, A. and Fonagy, P. (2003) ‘Health service utilization costs for borderline personality disorder patients treated with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization versus general psychiatric care’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (1): 169–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.169
    Bayne, R., Horton, I. and Bimrose, J. (eds) (1996) New Directions in Counselling, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203435212
    Beck, A.T. (1976) Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International University Press.
    BeckA.T., Emery, G. and Greenberg, R.L. (1985) Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: A Cognitive Perspective. New York: Basic Books.
    Beck, A.T., Freeman, A. and Associates (1990) Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
    Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F. and Emery, G. (1979) Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guilford Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-2641-0_7
    Beebe, B. (2000) ‘Coconstructing mother-infant distress: the microsynchrony of maternal impingement and infant avoidance in the face-to-face encounter’, Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20: 412–40.
    Beitman, B.D., Goldfried, M.R. and Norcross, J.C. (1989) ‘The movement towards integrating the psychotherapies: an overview’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 146: 138–47.
    Bergin, A.E. and Garfield, S.L. (eds) (1994) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    4th edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Berne, F. (1975) Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy: A Systematic Individual and Social Psychiatry. London: Souvenir Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11495-000
    Billington, R., Hockey, J. and Strawbridge, S. (1998) Exploring Self and Society. London: Macmillan.
    Bion, W. (1956) ‘Development of schizophrenic thought’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 37: 344–6.
    Blake, R. (1964) ‘Studying group action’, in L.Bradford, J.Gibb and K.Benne (eds), T-Group Theory and Laboratory Method. New York: John Wiley.
    Blomberg, J., Lazar, A. and Sandell, R. (2001) ‘Long-term outcome of long-term psychoanalytically oriented therapies: first findings of the Stockholm Outcome Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis Study’, Psychotherapy Research, 11: 361–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptr/11.4.361
    Bollas, C. (1987) The Shadow of the Object Psychoanalysis of the Unthought Known. London: Free Association Books.
    Bollas, C. (1989) Forces of Destiny. London: Free Association Books.
    Bordin, E.S. (1979) ‘The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance’, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16 (3): 252–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085885
    Bowlby, J. (1988) A Secure Base: Clinical Application of Attachment Theory. London: Tavistock/Routledge.
    British Psychological Society (2006) Regulations and Syllabus for the Qualification in Counselling Psychology. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
    Brown, D. and Pedder, J. (1989) Introduction to Psychotherapy: An Outline of Psychodynamic Principles and Practice. London: Routledge.
    Buber, M. (1970) I and Thou. New York: Scribner's. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01758631
    Butler, G. (1999) ‘Integrative developments in cognitive therapy’, paper presented at the Joint One-Day Conference ‘Integrative Developments in Psychotherapy’, Royal College of Psychiatrists Psychotherapy Faculty and The British Psychological Society, Psychotherapy Section, 9 October.
    Carroll, M. (1996) Counselling Supervision: Theory, Skills and Practice. London: Cassell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515078808254224
    Cartwright, D.P. and Lippitt, R. (1978) ‘Study of communication of theory in a human relations laboratory’, in L.Bradford (ed.), Group Development. La Jolla, CA: University Associates.
    Chamberlain, T. (1998) ‘Defining psychotherapy and counselling’, The Psychotherapist (UKCP), 11: 5–6.
    Clarkson, P. (1994) ‘The psychotherapeutic relationship’, in P.Clarkson and M.Pokorny (eds), The Handbook of Psychotherapy. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642539808400514
    Clarkson, P. (1995) The Therapeutic Relationship. London: Whurr.
    Clarkson, P. and Pokorny, M. (eds) (1994) The Handbook of Psychotherapy. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13642539808400514
    Core System Group (1998) CORE System (Information Management) Handbook. Leeds: Core System Group.
    Corrigall, J., Payne, H. and Wilkinson, H. (eds) (2006) About a Body: Working with the Embodied Mind in Psychotherapy. Hove: Brunner-Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.1999.tb00021.x
    Cowan, W.M. and Kendal, E.R. (2001) A brief history of synapses and synaptic transmission’, in W.M.Cowan, T.C.Sudhof and C.F.Stevens (eds), Synapses. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Cozolino, L.J. (2002) The N'euroscience of Psychotherapy. New York: Norton.
    Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Crow, M.J. and Ridley, J. (1990) Therapy with Couples: A Behavioural-Systems Approach to Marital and Sexual Problems. Oxford: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470690420
    Culley, S. (1991) Integrative Counselling Skills in Action. London: Sage.
    Damasio, A. (2000) The Feeling of What Happens. London: Vintage.
    Damasio, A. (2003) Looking for Spinoza. London: Vintage.
    Davanloo, H. (1980) Current Trends in Short-term Dynamic Therapy. New York: Aronson.
    Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds) (1994) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Diamond, N. (1996) ‘Can we speak of internal and external reality?’, Group Analysis, 29: 303–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0533316496293003
    Driscoll, R. (1987) ‘Ordinary language as a common language for psychotherapy’, Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 6: 184–94.
    Dryden, W. (ed.) (1989) Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Dryden, W. (ed.) (1990a) Individual Therapy: A Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Dryden, W. (1990b) Rational-Emotive Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Dryden, W. (ed.) (1992) Integrative and Eclectic Therapy: A Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Dryden, W. and Feltham, C. (1992) Brief Counselling. London: Sage.
    Dunn, J. (1984) Sisters and Brothers. London: Fontana.
    Dunn, J. (1993) Young Children's Close Relationships: Beyond Attachment. London: Sage.
    Dunn, J. and Kendrick, C. (1982) Siblings: Love, Envy and Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Egan, G. (1986) The Skilled Helper: A Systematic Approach to Effective Helping (
    3rd edn
    ). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Egan, G. (1990) Exercise in Helping Skills: A Training Manual to Accompany. The Skilled Helper (
    4th edn
    ). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Eisold, K. (1994) ‘The intolerance of diversity in psychoanalytic institutes’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 75: 785–800.
    Ellis, A. (1962) Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/005127
    EltonWilson, J. (1996) Time-conscious Psychological Therapy. London: Routledge.
    Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.
    Erskine, R.G. (1989) A relationship therapy: developmental perspectives’, in B.Loria (ed.), Developmental Theories and the Clinical Process: Conference Proceedings of the Eastern Regional Transactional Analysis Conference. Stamford, CT: Eastern Regional Transactional Analysis Association.
    Eskapa, R. (1992) ‘Multimodal therapy’, in W.Dryden (ed.), Integrative and Eclectic Therapy: A Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Etherington, K. (2000) Narrative Approaches to Working with Adult Male Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Clients’, the Counsellor's and the Researcher's Story. London: Jessica Kingsley
    Eysenck, H.J. (1952) ‘The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation’, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16: 319–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0063633
    Feltham, C. (1997a) ‘Challenging the core theoretical model’, Counselling, May: 121–5.
    Feltham, C. (ed.) (1997b) Which Psychotherapy: Leading Exponents Explain Their Differences. London: Sage.
    Feltham, C. (ed.) (1999) Understanding the Counselling Relationship. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218037
    Field, N. (1989) ‘Listening with the body: an exploration in the counter transference’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 5 (4): 512–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.1989.tb01110.x
    Fonagy, P. (ed.) (2002) An Open Door Review of Outcome Studies in Psychoanalysis. London: International Psychoanalytical Association.
    Fonagy, P., Steele, H. and Steele, M. (1991) ‘Measuring the ghost in the nursery: a summary of the main findings of the Anna Freud Centre – University College’, Bulletin of the Anna Freud Centre, 14: 115–31.
    Fonagy, P., Steele, H., Steele, M., Moran, G.S. and Higgitt, A.C. (1991) ‘The capacity for understanding mental states: the reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment’, Infant Mental Health Journal, 12: 200–18.
    Foucault, M. (1979) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977 (trans. C.Gordon). Brighton: Harvester.
    Frank, J.D. (1961) Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy. New York: Schocken Books.
    Frank, J.D. (1973) Persuasion and Healing (
    2nd edn
    ). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Franz, C.E., McClelland, D.C. and Weinberger, T. (1991) ‘Childhood antecedents of conventional social accomplishment in mid-life adults: a 36 year prospective study’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 586–95http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.586
    Freud, S. (1912) ‘Recommendations to physicians practising psychoanalysis’, in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (vol. XII). London: Hogarth.
    Freud, S. (1926) ‘The question of lay analysis: conversation with an impartial person’, in S.Freud, Two Short Accounts of Psycho-Analysis: Five Lectures of Psycho-Analysis, The Question of Lay Analysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Gaston, L., Goldfried, M.R., Greenberg, L., Horvath, A.O., Raue, P.J. and Watson, J. (1995) ‘The therapeutic alliance in psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioural and experiential therapiesJournal of Psychotherapy Integration, 5 (1): 1–26.
    Gawthrop, J.C. and Uhlemann, M.R. (1992) ‘Effects of the problem-solving approach to ethics training’, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23: 38–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.23.1.38
    Gerhardt, S. (2004) Why Love Matters. London: Brunner-Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13698030601074476
    Gill, M.M. (1982) Analysis of Transference. New York: International Universities Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198308000-00015
    Glass, C.R., Arnkoff, D.B. and Rodriguez, B.F. (1998) ‘An overview of directions in psychotherapy integration research, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 8: 187–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023213119721
    Gray, A. (1994) An Introduction to the Therapeutic Frame. London: Routledge.
    Greenberger, D. and Padesky, C. (1995) Mind over Mood. New York: Guilford Press.
    Grencavage, L.M. and Norcross, J.C. (1990) ‘Where are the commonalities among the therapeutic common factors’, Professional Psychotherapy: Research and Practice, 21: 371–8.
    Hardy, G.E., Stiles, W.B., Barkham, M. and Startup, M. (1998) ‘Therapist responsiveness to client interpersonal styles during time-limited treatment for depression’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 304–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.2.304
    Hinde, R.A.. (1987) Individuals, Relationships and Culture: Links between Ethology and the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Holden, W (1998) Shell Shock: The Psychological Impact of War. London: Channel 4 Books.
    Hollanders, H. (2003) ‘The eclectic and integrative approach’, in R.Woolfe, WDryden and S.Strawbridge (eds), Handbook of Counselling Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Sage
    Houston, G. (1995) The Now Red Book of Gestalt. London: Rochester Foundation.
    Houston, G. (2003) Brief Gestalt Therapy. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221303
    Houston, G. (2004) The Group Alive. London: Rochester Foundation.
    Howard, K.I., Kopta, S.M., Krause, M.S. and Orlinsky, D.E. (1986) ‘The dose-effect relationship in psychotherapy’, American Psychologist, 41: 159–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.2.159
    Howe, D. (1993) On Being a Client: Understanding the Process of Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.
    Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. and Miller, S.D. (eds) (1999) The Heart and Soul of Change: What Works in Therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11132-000
    Hycner, R.M. (1993) Between Person and Person. New York: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland Press.
    Jacobs, M. (1989) Psychodynamic Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Jacobs, M. (1995) Charlie: An Unwanted Child?Buckingham: Open University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07351690.2011.553165
    Jacobs, M. (1996) Jitendra: Lost Connections. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Joseph, B. (1983) Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change. London: Routledge.
    Joseph, B. (1985) ‘Transference: the total situation’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 66: 447
    Jung, C.G. (1929) ‘Problems of modern psychotherapy’, in H.Read, M.Fordham, G.Adler and W.McGuire (eds), The Collected Works of C.G. Jung (vol. 16). London: Routledge.
    Kahn, M. (1991) Between Therapist and Client: The New Relationship. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.
    Karasu, T.B. (1986) ‘The specificity against nonspecificity dilemma: toward identifying therapeutic change agents’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 143: 687–95.
    Kilgard, M.P. and Merzenich, M.M. (1998) ‘Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity’, Science, 279: 1714–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.279.5357.1714
    Kimmel, D.C. (1990) Adulthood and Aging. Chichester: Wiley.
    Kitto, J. (1998) ‘The working alliance: is it necessary?British Journal of Psychotherapy, 15: 43–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.1998.tb00422.x
    Kohon, G. (ed.) (1988) The British School of Psychoanalysis: The Independent Tradition. London: Free Association Books.
    Kopta, S.M., Howard, K.I., Lowry, J.L. and Beutler, L.E. (1992) ‘The psychotherapy dosage model and clinical significance: estimating how much is enough for psychological symptoms’, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Psychotherapy Research, Berkeley, California, June.
    Lagos, C. (2006) Race, Culture and Counselling. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Lambert, K. (1986) ‘Transference and countertransference: Talion Law and gratitude’, Journal of Analytical Psychology, 17: 31–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-5922.1972.00031.x
    Lambert, M.J. (1992) ‘Psychotherapy outcome research: implications for integrative and eclectic therapies’, in J.C.Norcross and M.R.Goldfried (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Basic Books.
    Lambert, M.J. (2004) Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    5th edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Lambert, M.J. and Bergin, A.E. (1994) ‘The effectiveness of psychotherapy’, in A.E.Bergin and S.L.Garfield (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change. New York: John Wiley.
    LambertM.J., Garfield, S.L. and Bergin, A.E. (2004) ‘Overview, trends, and future issues’, in M.J.Lambert (2004) Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    5th edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Lane, D.A. and Corrie, S. (2006) The Modern Scientist-practitioner. London: Routledge.
    Langs, R. (1979a) ‘The interactional dimension of countertransference’, in L.Epstein and A.H.Feiner (eds), Countertransference. New York: Aronson. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/jung.1.1982.3.3.55
    Langs, R. (1979b) The Therapeutic Environment. New York: Aronson.
    Langs, R. (1979c) Technique in Transition. London: Karnac.
    Lapworth, P., Sills, C. and Fish, S. (2001) Integration in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Developing a Personal Approach. London: Sage.
    Layden, M.A., Newman, C.F., Freeman, A. and Morse, S.B. (1993) Cognitive Therapy of Borderline Personality Disorder. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2898%2980014-X
    Lazarus, A.A. (1981) The Practice of Multimodal Therapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Leigh, A. (1998) Referral and Termination Issues for Counsellors. London: Sage.
    Levinson, D. (1978) The Seasons of Man's Life. New York: Ballantine Books.
    Lewin, K. (1951) Field Theory in Social Science. New York: Harper and Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10269-000
    Little, M. (1986) Toward Basic Unity. London: Free Association Books.
    Llewelyn, S. and Hume, W. (1979) ‘The patient's view of therapy’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52: 29–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1979.tb02490.x
    McHugh, P. and Slavney, P. (1986) The Perspectives of Psychiatry. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195390445.003.0002
    McLeod, J. (1993) An Introduction to Counselling. Buckingham: Open University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14733145.2011.548954
    McLeod, J. (1999) Practitioner Research in Counselling. London: Sage.
    McLeod, J. (2003) Doing Counselling Research. London: Sage
    Mahoney, M.J. (1987) ‘Psychotherapy and the cognitive sciences: an evolving alliance’, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1: 39–59.
    Mahrer, A.R. (1989) The Integration of Psychotherapies: A Guide for Practising Therapists. New York: Human Sciences Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085996
    Mahrer, A.R. (2004) Why Do Research in Psychotherapy: Introduction to a Revolution. London: Whurr.
    Main, M., Kaplan, N. and Cassidy, J. (1985) ‘Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: a move to the level of representation’, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2): 66–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333827
    Malan, D.H. (1975) A Study of Brief Psychotherapy. London: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4395-0
    Malan, D.H. (1979) Individual Psychotherapy and the Science of Psychodynamics. New York: Plenum.
    Mann, J. (1973) Time-limited Psychotherapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Maslow, A. (1968) Towards a Psychology of Being. New York: D. van Nostrand Co.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10793-000
    May, R., Angel, E. and Ellenberger, H. (1958) Existence: A New Dimension in Psychiatry and Psychology. New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11321-000
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) The Phenomenology of Perception (trans. C.Smith). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1964) The Primacy of Perception. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Milton, J. (1996) Presenting the Case for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Services. An Annotated Bibliography. London: The Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the NHS.
    Mitchell, S.A. (1988) Relational Concepts in Psychoanalysis: An Integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mitchell, S.A. (1994) ‘Recent developments in psychoanalytic theorizing’, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 4 (2): 93–103.
    Mitchell, S.A. (1998) Attachment theory and the psychoanalytic tradition: reflections on human relationality’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 15: 177–93http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.1998.tb00441.x
    Moorey, S. (1990) ‘Cognitive therapy’, in W.Dryden (ed.), Individual Therapy: A Handbook. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.1994.tb01812.x
    Moreno, J.L. (1923/1947) The Theater of Spontaneity. New York: Beacon.
    Moreno, J.L. (1946) Psychodrama. New York: Beacon.
    National Register of Psychotherapists (2002) National Register of Psychotherapists. London: United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy.
    Nelson-Jones, R. (1988) Practical Counselling and Helping Skills (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Cassell.
    Nelson-Jones, R. (1990) Human Relationship Skills (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Cassell.
    Norcross, J.C. (2002) Psychotherapy Relationships That Work: Contributions and Responsiveness to Patients. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Norcross, J.C. and Arkowitz, H. (1992) ‘The evolution and current status of psychotherapy integration’, in W.Dryden (ed.), Integrative and Eclectic Therapy: A Handbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Norcross, J.C. and Goldfried, M.R. (eds) (1992) Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Basic Books.
    Norcross, J.C. and Thomas, B.L. (1988) ‘What's stopping us now? Obstacles to psychotherapy integration’, Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 7: 74–80. O'Brien, M. (1976) The Diagnosis of Psychopathy: A Study in Personality and Behaviour of ‘Psychopaths’ Referred for Treatment to a Therapeutic Community, unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.
    O'Brien, M. (1997) ‘Training in higher education’, Caunselling Psychology Review (special issue on training, part 2), 12: 127–32.
    Ogden, T.H. (1992) Projective Identification and Psychotherapeutic Technique. London: Karnac.
    Orlinsky, D.E. and Howard, K.I. (1978) ‘The relation of process to outcome in psychotherapy’, in A.E.Bergin and S.L.Garfield (eds), Handbook ofi Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Orlinsky, D.E. and Howard, K.I. (1986) ‘Process and outcome in psychotherapy’, in A.E.Bergin and S.L.Garfield (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Orlinsky, D.E., Graw, K. and Parks, B. (1994) ‘Process and outcome in psychotherapy-noch einmal’, in A.E.Bergin and S.L.Garfield (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    4th edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Orlinsky, D.E., Ronnestad, M.H. and Willutzki, U. (2004) ‘Fifty years of psychotherapy process – outcome research: continuity and change’, in M.J.Lambert (ed.), Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    5th edn
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Palmer, S. and McMahon, G. (eds) (1997) Client Assessment. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221624
    Palmer, S. and Woolfe, R. (eds) (1999) Integrative and Eclectic Counselling and Psychotherapy. London: Sage.
    Palmer, S., Dainow, S. and Milner, P. (eds) (1996) Counselling: The BAC Reader. London: Sage, in association with the British Association for Counselling.
    Panksepp, J. (1998) Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.05.013
    Parry, G. (2000) ‘Evidence based psychotherapy: special case or special pleading?’, Evidence Based Mental Health, 3: 35–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.3.2.35
    Parry, G. and Richardson, A. (1996) NHS Psychotherapy Services in England: Review of Strategic Policy. London: NHS Executive.
    Paul, G.L. (1967) ‘Strategy of outcome research in psychotherapy, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31: 109–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024436
    Perls, F., Hefferlme, R. and Goodman, P. (1951) Gestalt Therapy, Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality. New York: Julian Press.
    Pine, F. (1990) Drive, Ego, Object and Self: A Synthesis for Clinical Work. New York: Basic Books.
    Polkinhorne, D.E. (1999) ‘Traditional research in psychotherapy practice’, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55: 1429–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-4679%28199912%2955:12%3C1429::AID-JCLP2%3E3.0.CO;2-L
    Prochaska, J.O. and DiClemente, C.C. (1992) ‘The transtheoretical approach, in J.Norcross and M.Goldfried (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Basic Books.
    Purves, D. and Voyvodic, J.T (1987) ‘Imaging mammalian nerve cells and their connections over time in living animals’, Trends in Neurosciences, 10: 398–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-2236%2887%2990005-1
    Racker, H. (1968) Transference and Countertransference. New York: International Universities Press.
    Rayner, E. (1990) The Independent Mind in British Psychoanalysis. London: Free Association Books.
    Regulations and Syllabus for the Diploma in Counselling Psychology for Examinations to be Held in 1998. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
    RidleyM. (2003) Nature Via Nurture: Genes, Experience, and What Makes Us Human. London: Fourth Estate.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-centered Therapy. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01964479
    Rogers, C.R. (1957) ‘The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’, Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21: 95–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045357
    Rogers, C.R. (1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01554899
    Rogers, C.R. (1980) A Way of Being. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100007500500202
    Roth, A. and FonagyP. (1996) What Works for Whom? A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research. New York: Guilford Press.
    Rothschild, B. (2000) The Body Remembers: The Psychophysiology of Trauma and Trauma Treatment. New York: Norton.
    Rothstein, A. (ed.) (1985) Models of the Mind: Their Relationships to Clinical Work. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
    Rutter, M. and Rutter, M. (1992) Developing Minds: Challenge and Continuity across the Life Span. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Rybash, J.M., Roodin, P.A.. and Santrock, J.W. (1991) Adult Development and Aging. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown Publishers.
    Rycroft, C. (1995) ‘Reminiscences of a survivor: psychoanalysis 1937–1993: personal view’, British Journal of Psychotherapy, 11: 453–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0118.1995.tb00753.x
    Ryle, A. (1990) Cognitive-analytic Therapy: Active Participation in Change. Chichester: Wiley.
    Safran, J.D. (1990) ‘Towards a refinement of cognitive therapy in light of interpersonal theory: 1. Theory’, Clinical Psychology Review, 10: 87–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2890%2990108-M
    Safran, J.D. (1993) ‘The therapeutic alliance rupture as a transtheoretical phenomenon: definitional and conceptual issues’, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 3 (1): 33–51.
    Safran, J.D. and Segal, Z.V. (1990) Interpersonal Process in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Salkovskis, P.M. (ed.) (1996a) Trends in Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies. New York: Wiley.
    Salkovskis, P.M. (ed.) (1996b) Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Salzberger-Wittenberg, I. (1988) Psycho-analytic Insight and Relationships. London: Routledge.
    Samuels, A. (1995) Jung and the Post-Jungians. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359297
    Sanders, D. and Wills, F. (1999) ‘The therapeutic relationship in cognitive therapy’, in C.Feltham (ed.), Understanding the Counselling Relationship. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218037
    Sandler, J. (ed.) (1988) Projection, Identification, Projective Identification. London: Karnac.
    Sandler, J., Dare, C. and Holder, R. (1992) The Patient and the Analyst. London: Karnac. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003072-198410001-00032
    Schon, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07377366.1986.10401080
    Schon, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. London: Jossey-Bass.
    Schopenhauer, A. (1970) Essays and Aphorisms. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Schore, A. (1994) Affect Regulation and the Origin of Self. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Schore, A. (2003a) ‘The human unconscious: the development of the right brain and its role in early emotional life’, in V.Green (ed.), Emotional Developmental in Psychoanalysis, Attachment Theory, and N'euroscience: Creating Connections. London: Brunner-Routledge.
    Schore, A. (2003b) Affect Regulation and the Repair of Self. New York: Norton.
    Scott, T. (2004) Integrative Psychotherapy in Healthcare: A Humanistic Approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Searles, H. (1986) ‘Oedipal love in the countertransference’, in Collected Papers on Schizophrenia and Related Subjects. London: Karnac Books.
    Sills, C. (ed.) (1997) Contracts in Counselling. London: Sage.
    Slade, A. and Aber, J.L. (1992) Attachments, drives and development: conflicts and convergencies in theory’, in J.W.Barron, M.N.Eagle and D.L.Wolitzky (eds), Interface of Psychoanalysis and Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Smith, M.L. and Glass, G.V. (1977) ‘Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies’, American Psychologist, 32: 752–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.9.752
    Speedy, J. and Thompson, G. (2004) ‘Living a more peopled life: definitional ceremony as inquiry into psychotherapy “outcomes”’, The International Journal of Narrative therapy and Community Work, 3 (43): 53.
    Spinelli, E. (1989) The Interpreted World: An Introduction to Phenomenological Psychology. London: Sage.
    Stern, D.N. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant. New York: Basic Books.
    Stern, D.N., Sander, L.W., Nahum, J.P, Harrison, A.M., Lyons-Ruth, K., Morgan, A.C., Bruschwiler-Stern, N. and Tronick, E. (The Process of Change Study Group) (1998) ‘Non-interpretive mechanisms in psychoanalytic therapy: the “something more” than interpretation’, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 79: 903–21.
    Stiles, W.B., Shapiro, D.A.. and Elliott, R.K. (1986) Are all psychotherapies equivalent?’, American Psychologist, 41: 165–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.2.165
    Stolorow, R.D., Brandchaft, B. and Atwood, G.E. (1987) Psychoanalytic Treatment: An Intersubjective Approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
    Strawbridge, S. and Woolfe, R. (2003) ‘Counselling and psychology in context’, in R.Woolfe, W.Dryden and S.Strawbridge (eds), Handbook of Counselling and Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Sage.
    Stricker, G. (2005) ‘Can something hard be made easy? A book essay’, Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 15 (224): 237.
    Stricker, G. and Gold, J.R. (eds) (1993) Comprehensive Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration. New York: Plenum Press.
    Stricker, G. and Gold, J.R. (2003) ‘Integrative approaches to psychotherapy’, in A.S.Gurman and S.B.Messer (eds), Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Guilford Press.
    Sugarman, L. (1986/1993) Life-span Development. London: Routledge.
    Sullivan, H.S. (1953) The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Tansey, M. and Burke, W. (1989) Understanding Countertransference. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
    Trevarthen, C. (1977) ‘Descriptive analyses of infant communicative behavior’, in H.R.Schaffer (ed.), Studies in Mother-Infant Interaction. New York: Academic Press.
    Trevarthen, C. (1979) ‘Communication and co-operationinearlyinfancy:adescription of primary intersubjectivity’, in M.M.Bulowa (ed.), Before Speech: The Beginning of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110874099.689
    Trevarthen, C. and Hubley, P. (1978) ‘Secondary intersubjectivity: confidence, confiders and acts of meaning in the first year’, in A.Lock (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol. New York: Academic Press.
    van Deurzen, E. (1998) Paradox and Passion in Psychotherapy: An Existential Approach to Therapy and Counselling. Chichester: Wiley.
    van Deurzen-Smith, E. (1988) Existential Counselling in Practice. London: Sage.
    Walker, M. (1995a) Peta: Feminist's Problem with Men. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Walker, M. (1995b) Morag: Myself or Mother Hen?Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Ward, D.E. (1989) ‘Termination of individual counselling: concepts and strategies’, in W.Dryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Watkins, C.E., Jr. (1989) ‘Transference phenomena in the counselling situation’, in WDryden (ed.), Key Issues for Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Weiner, I.B. (2005) ‘Book review of M.J. Lambert (2004) Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (
    5th edn
    ). New York: Wiley’, Psychotherapy Research, 15: 351–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503300512331335075
    Westen, D. and Morrison, K. (2001) A multidimensional meta-analysis of treatments for depression, panic, and generalized anxiety disorder: an empirical examination of the status of empirically supported therapies’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69 (6): 875–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.69.6.875
    Whitaker, D.S. (1985) Using Groups to Help People. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203360835
    Whiteley, J.S. and Gordon, J. (1979) Group Approaches in Psychiatry. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Wilkinson, M. (2006) Coming into Mind: The Mind-Brain Relationship: A Jungian Clinical Perspective. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e521282006-009
    Wills, F. and Sanders, D. (1997) Cognitive Therapy: Transforming the Image. London: Sage.
    Winnicott, D.W (1959) Collected Papers: Through Paediatrics to Psychoanalysis. London: Tavistock. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000441-195907000-00028
    Woolfe, R., Dryden, W. and Strawbridge, S. (eds) (2003) Handbook of Counselling Psychology (
    2nd edn
    ). London: Sage.
    Wright, K. (1991) Vision and Separation: Between Mother and Baby. London: Free Association Books.
    Yalom, I.D. (1980) Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Yalom, I.D. (1985) The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: Basic Books.
    Young, J.E. (1994) Cognitive Therapy for Personality Disorders: A Schema-focused Approach (
    revised edn
    ). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
    Zinkin, L. (1978) ‘Person to person: the search for the human dimension in psychotherapy’, British Journal of Medical Psychology, 51: 25–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1978.tb02442.x

    Author Index


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website