This book presents novel theoretical ideas and empirical findings where the fields of strategizing and organizing meet. At this boundary lie many of the most crucial theoretical and practical issues for management and managing. Innovative Forms of Organizing, the eagerly awaited sequel to The Innovating Organization (SAGE, 2000), draws upon the comprehensive data sets of the INFORM programme of research, to examine the development of innovative forms of organizing and company performance in organizations across Europe, Japan and the United States. Innovative Forms of Organizing establishes and develops three strong themes: organizing and strategizing; complementarities, change and performance; and the management of dualities in the modern corporation. The book then discusses the implications of its presented ideas for strategizing/organizing in the 21st century firm and the challenges for management researchers of conducting large scale, international comparative research. Innovative Forms of Organizing thereby illustrates 21st Century management research in 21st Century organizations across Europe, Japan and the USA. This seminal international study will be a classic in the field for years to come for scholars and policy makers in academia, business and government who are interested in strategy, organization and international management.

Managing Dualities
Managing dualities
Carlos J.Sánchez-RundeAndrew M.Pettigrew
Introduction

Organizations show many faces and perform multiple functions. Often tensions arise in aligning actions in mutually reinforcing modes. Organizations have always needed to be understood and managed in complementary and systemic ways.

The notion of competing and apparently contradictory tendencies is well embedded in the writing on complex organizations. As far back as the early 1960s, Burns and Stalker (1961) developed the theme of mechanistic and organic systems in firms. Around the same time, Douglas McGregor (1960) had distinguished the competing virtues of Theory X and Theory Y in management. By the 1980s, Michael Porter (1985) was advising firms to position themselves on cost leadership or differentiation, or to focus and thus avoid the dangerous situation of ‘being caught in ...

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