This book provides a fresh insight into the role of identity in international and national relations and policy. It analyzes identity conceptions and state behavior, arguing that identities (seen in terms of self/other relations) constitute a crucial element of state interest, both in terms of end goals and strategies. It discusses the effects of secular and religious-cultural understanding of identity on domestic and foreign affairs.

The book presents a discourse on national identity in India, the events from 1990–2003, and how these have influenced the engagement of India with others, especially with Pakistan and China. In this process, it reveals several surprising insights, along with the challenges that confront the country.

Relations with China: ‘Hindi Chini Bhai-Bhai’?1

Relations with China: ‘Hindi Chini bhai-bhai’?


In the previous cases, a common thread was the connection between internal and external Others. These cases were chosen for the complex internal/external dynamic they presented. China, on the other hand, is a case that has much significance in the Indian political universe but which, at the same time, does not have the deep cultural and historical intertwining with India that Islamic Pakistan and Kashmir have. It is a historical and political Other that has loomed large in the Indian strategic imagination and has engendered positive and negative rivalry (in the sense that China is both admired and feared) in India. Furthermore, India, Pakistan and China are seen to form a trilateral security complex ...

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