This book provides a fresh insight into the role of identity in international and national relations and policy. It analyzes identity conceptions and state behavior, arguing that identities (seen in terms of self/other relations) constitute a crucial element of state interest, both in terms of end goals and strategies. It discusses the effects of secular and religious-cultural understanding of identity on domestic and foreign affairs.

The book presents a discourse on national identity in India, the events from 1990–2003, and how these have influenced the engagement of India with others, especially with Pakistan and China. In this process, it reveals several surprising insights, along with the challenges that confront the country.

Pakistan: Significant Patterns in Relations with the Most Important External ‘Other’

Pakistan: Significant Patterns in Relations with the Most Important External ‘Other’

Pakistan: Significant patterns in relations with the most important external ‘other’


While Jammu and Kashmir (JK) constituted an ambiguous Other with both internal and external dimensions for India, Pakistan, since partition, has emerged as the most threatening external Other in the life of Indian politics. Indeed, Pakistan looms large in Indian security and foreign policy concerns and practices. First, since attaining Independence from Britain in 1947, India and Pakistan have predominantly seen each other in confrontational terms.1 The stress of partition of colonial India into two independent states and the resulting bloodshed as hundreds of thousands of Hindus and Muslims were forced to immigrate into the new countries, set the tone for their subsequent relations. ...

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