In the last few decades, India has experienced several shifts in the policies pertaining to the financing of higher education. These shifts include a move from public financing to keep pace with the expansion requirements of the sector; the strengthening of market forces in higher education both through privatisation of public institutions and operation of private institutions; and a move from the financing of institutions to the financing of students. The Centre for Policy Research in Higher Education (CPRHE) has initiated major research activities to understand how the recent changes have affected the financing of higher education in India and how the higher education institutions cope with and respond to these changes. India Higher Education Report 2018, the fourth volume in the series, presents this study to provide a comprehensive analysis of financing of higher education in India. This book investigates the changing dynamics and related key issues including state–market dynamics, university–industry linkages, foreign aid, institutional strategies to overcome shortages in funding, issues with self-financing courses, educational loans and fee reimbursement schemes, expansion and financing of private higher education.

Gender Budgeting in Higher Education

Gender budgeting in higher education
Mona Khare


Right to education (RTE) is a basic human right. Efforts by international agencies and national governments have contributed to the progress towards improving educational opportunities. Gender equality is one of the core elements and commitments outlined in all global and national efforts. The recently formulated sustainable development goals (SDGs) also reinforce the importance of gender equality.

Data suggest that despite several efforts, a large number of girls are still unable to enrol and/or complete schooling, the gross enrolment ratio (GER) of girls is dropping down sharply from primary through secondary to tertiary education. The 10 year review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action pointed that out of the ...

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