Identity in Organizations: Building Theory Through Conversations
Publication Year: 1998
Subject: Organizational Behavior
This investigation of the fundamental character of organizational identity and identification with an organization is arranged in the form of a provocative discussion between key scholars. The book focuses on three different paradigmatic views of identity: functionalist, interpretive and postmodern. Similarities and distinctions among these ways of understanding are explored, and numerous theoretical and practical insights are gained. The book concludes with a discussion of the relevance of identity as a construct in organizational study, and observations on conversation and theory building.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
Part I: What Does Organizational Identity Mean?
Part II: What Does Identity Imply for Strategy?
- Chapter 4: Organizational Identity within the Strategic Management Conversation: Contributions and Assumptions
- Chapter 5: A Strategy Conversation on the Topic of Organization Identity
Part III: How Do People Identify with Organizations?
Foundations for Organizational Science: A SAGE Publications Series[Page ii]
David Whetten, Brigham Young University
Peter J. Frost, University of British Columbia
Anne S. Huff, University of Colorado and Cranfield University (UK)
Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland
M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland
Andrew Van de Ven, University of Minnesota
The FOUNDATIONSFOR ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCE series supports the development of students, faculty, and prospective organizational science professionals through the publication of texts authored by leading organizational scientists Each volume provides a highly personal, hands-on introduction to a core topic or theory and challenges the reader to explore promising avenues for future theory development and empirical application.
Books in This Series
PUBLISHING IN THE ORGANIZATIONAL SCIENCES, 2nd Edition
Edited by L. L. Cummings and Peter J. Frost
SENSEMAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS
Karl E. Weick
INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS
W. Richard Scott
RHYTHMS OF ACADEMIC LIFE
Peter J. Frost and M. Susan Taylor
RESEARCHERS HOOKED ON TEACHING:
Noted Scholars Discuss the Synergies of Teaching and Research
Rae André and Peter J. Frost
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING: People in Organizations
Lee Roy Beach
ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Robert Folger and Russell Cropanzano
RECRUITING EMPLOYEES: Individual and Organizational Perspectives Alison E. Barber
ATTITUDES IN AND AROUND ORGANIZATIONS
Arthur P. Brief
IDENTITY IN ORGANIZATIONS: Building Theory Through Conversations
Edited by David Whetten and Paul Godfrey
PERSONNEL SELECTION: A Theoretical Approach
Neal Schmitt and David Chan
Copyright © 1998 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations/edited by David A. Whetten and Paul C. Godfrey
p. cm.—(Foundations for organizational science)
Includes bibliographical references and index
ISBN 0-7619-0947-8 (acid-free paper)
ISBN 0-7619-0948-6 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Organizational behavior. 2. Psychology, Industrial. 3. Corporate culture. I. Whetten, David A. (David Allfred), 1946- II. Godfrey, Paul C. III. Series.
HD58.7 .134 1998
98 99 00 01 02 03 04 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Marquita Flemming
Production Editor: Astrid Virding
Editorial Assistant: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter/Designer: Danielle Dillahunt
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
Preface: Why Organizational Identity, and Why Conversations?[Page vii]David A.WhettenWhy Organizational Identity?
Stuart Albert and I began using the concept “organizational identity” out of necessity— we needed an interpretive framework to make sense out of our experience as faculty members at the University of Illinois during a period of financial turbulence. In 1979, the state legislature cut the university's budget by 2%. In the contemporary higher education financial scene this is hardly reason for alarm. However, prior to 1979 the University of Illinois had “always” received budget increases. So, in response to what one University of Illinois administrator referred to as a pending financial disaster, the president organized a series of focus group discussions with faculty members to explore the organization's options.
Stuart and I were intimately involved in this process, and we were perplexed by the intensity of the debates. The incongruity between the relatively benign environmental stimulus and the incredibly animated organizational response seemed especially puzzling to a couple of business school professors who were at that time discussing in their classes the “real” financial crisis at Chrysler Corporation and the merits of the government's $100 million commitment to save that company. Our university administration was not considering shutting down any departments, firing any faculty, or even significantly downsizing any of the core academic programs. However, although the impending budget adjustment posed no real threat to those attending our discussion groups, they framed this legislative mandate as a profound threat to the organization and their membership in it. As we listened to faculty and administrators debate questions like “Has the legislature lost confidence in the university?”, “Is a geography department a necessary component of an [Page viii]American research university?”, and “Would important constituents still think of us as the University of Illinois if we cut out the aviation program, or cut back on agricultural extension services?”, we began to realize that concerns about identity are just as profound as concerns about survival.
The requirement to make, for the first time in the modern history of the organization, even a modest reduction in programmatic budget allocations required a justification so convincing that it quickly escalated into a full-blown identity crisis. The need to reduce the organization's commitment to something introduced the possibility that the organization might be willing to give up everything. By extension, some faculty worried that if the administration was willing to eliminate anything in order to balance the budget, it undoubtedly didn't care about those elements of the University of Illinois that were essential to their personal identity as academics. In brief: Although the existence of the organization was not in question, its identity was, and although the employment relationship between individual faculty and the university was not at risk, their identification with the university was.
What we observed was the anguishing personal and collective examination of members' taken-for-granted assumptions about what was core, enduring, and distinctive about an American research university in general, and the University of Illinois in particular, exacerbated by the terrifying prospect that the slightest reduction in the current organizational configuration could precipitate an uncontrollable erosion of organizational, and by inference personal, identity. Because the current faculty had never observed the university undertake a budget cut, they had no concrete experience to check the contagious fear that once they started down the slippery slope of budget cuts there would be no way to stop short of cutting out what for each individual member constituted the core of a university.
Writing the 1985 ROB article on organizational identity was both a highly frustrating and rewarding experience. It was difficult to construct a new logic and language, but it was immensely gratifying to make sense out of our anomalous observations. Drawing upon the literature on identity in related disciplines, we crafted a theoretical lens that afforded us a better understanding of the incongruous response-to-stimuli behavior on campus. Soon after the completion of this project, Stuart joined the faculty at the University of Minnesota and our scholarly interests followed divergent paths. After a circadian-like period of dormancy, the concept of organizational identity started sprouting up all over the place. We began getting papers to review from colleagues who reported similar experiences—they were observing emotionally intense debates between key organizational stakeholders about profoundly significant issues and they found the concepts of “identity of and “identification with” extremely useful interpretive fimneworks.
In 1994, I moved from the University of Illinois to Brigham Young University to direct the Center for the Study of Values in Organizations. My felt need to publicize our new Center and my revitalized interest in organizational identity gave rise to the “Sundance Conference on Organizational Identity” in September 1994. 1 invited 30 colleagues to meet for a two-day conference at Robert Redford's resort at the base of majestic Mount Timpanogos in Utah. This meeting resembled a [Page ix]brainstorming session in which small groups spent several hours discussing questions like “What is organizational identity?”, “How should it be measured?”, and “How is it similar to and different from related topics like organizational culture?” At the conclusion of our final plenary session, the only thing that I could get the participants to agree on was that they wanted to return for “Identity II.” So, the next fall we met at Deer Valley, a ski resort near Park City, Utah. This time we narrowed the invitation list to scholars who were actively involved in theory development and research on this topic. Whereas Identity I had been organized as an extended brainstorming session, this time we invited participants to share their work-in-progress. Our discussions about “what is” being done proved to be a nice counterbalance to the Identity I focus on “what if.” At the conclusion of Identity II the participants felt we were ready to meet a year hence and work on a book.Why Conversations about Organizational Identity?
The design of Identity III was tricky, because the organization of the conference needed to be consistent with the organization of the book. We intuitively felt that the traditional conference-to-book format, in which participants present formal papers at the conference and then revise them for the book based on feedback they receive during the conference, was inappropriate because it was out of character with both the culture of our previous conferences and the nascent stage of our collective understanding of the topic. After months of contemplation and debate we selected the modality of “conversation” as the core design feature of both the conference and the book. Publishing a set of structured conversations about organizational identity satisfied our criteria of being congruent with the informal nature of our previous meetings and the emergent nature of the subject matter. As a bonus, we realized that it also mirrored the cocreative, discursive process whereby organizational identities are created, sustained, and modified. And, besides, we thought it would be lots more fun.
However, as the meeting date drew closer and some our collaborators began asking us if we really thought this idea was going to work, we became concerned about the lack of structure and clarity inherent in the conversation format. In response, we sent out a list of questions and topics for participants to begin contemplating, as well as a basic set of readings to review before the meeting. We also asked Blake Ashforth, Denny Gioia, and Rhonda Reger to serve as conversation leaders for three general topics. Our apprehension as organizers was further reflected in my opening remarks at the conference, which focused on what we meant by a “structured conversation” and why we felt this was the appropriate medium for the conference and the book. Following my part frame setting, part pep talk, part legitimacy-seeking opening presentation and a vigorous question-and-answer period, one of the participants grumbled, “Let's stop talking about doing it, and get started. We won't know if this is going to work until we see what we have to say.” With that bit of encouragement, we split up into three groups and started conversing.[Page x]A Note to the Reader
As you look over the organization of the book you will observe that each of the discussion leaders has provided a brief description of how their group proceeded to fashion their version of a conversation about organizational identity. In addition, Paul Godfrey has written a very thoughtful conclusion about using conversation to generate theory. We also commissioned a background paper for each of the three conversation topics, which appears at the beginning of each section, to help you understand the scholarly grist each group brought to their conversation mill. In addition to these conversation-specific introductions, we asked Stuart Albert to provide a brief introduction to the basic logic and language of organizational identity.
Our overall objective in framing a series of conversations about organizational identity was to invite you, the reader, to join in. We have attempted to provide sufficient background information so that, regardless of your previous exposure to this literature, you will understand the issues that framed our discussions. We have also worked hard to provoke your interest in extending and expanding these initial, tentative conversations. Speaking for all the contributors, we would love to reconvene at Sundance someday and continue our conversations—better informed by your contribution and participation.A Personal Note
I want to acknowledge a key role played by my colleague Hal Gregersen in organizing Identity I and II. I'm sorry that his schedule did not allow him to reprise his role at Identity III. It was fortuitous that Paul Godfrey's interest in identity was on the upswing at that time. His contribution to planning and managing Identity III was indispensable. But more important, Paul did most of the editorial legwork involved in assembling the materials contained in this book.
When my oldest son was considering various career options, he asked me why I had chosen to be an academic. I don't remember the details of my answer, but I know it included references to the joys of learning and creativity and especially to the pleasure of insight. I remember wishing that I had a more concrete way of sharing the best of my professional experiences with him. If he asked me that question today, I'd simply say Identity I, II, and III. Thank you to 45 wonderful colleagues and friends who contributed to our great conversations and fun (even funny) encounters with nature. Let's do it again.Acknowledgments
We would like to express appreciation to the many individuals who helped make this 4-year process, encompassing three conferences and this book, both possible and enjoyable. In particular, there were several secretaries and students who played [Page xi]critical roles, including, Marlow Christensen, Tim Simmons, Jean Hawkins, Rose Marie Morrell, and Amy Lilly. We also appreciate the support of our families during the hectic period of meeting editorial deadlines.
A number of colleagues participated in the first two identity conferences but were unable to join us for Identity III and the ensuing book project. We would like to recognize Jane Dutton, Charles Fombrun, and John Kimberly who made important contributions to our discussions at both Identity I and II but regretfully are not among the contributors to this book.
Finally, we are especially grateful that Denny Gioia, Rhonda Reger, and Blake Ashforth willingly expanded their roles as group discussion leaders by helping us edit the conference transcripts and coordinate the writing projects within their respective groups. Each clearly warrants the designation of Section Editor in this book.[Page xii]
About the Contributors[Page 300]
Stuart Albert is Associate Professor of Management in the Curtis, L. Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. In addition to an interest in hybrid organizational identity, his current work focuses on the study of timing, which is the subject of a book-length monograph. An introduction to this work can be found in his article “Towards a Theory of Timing: An Archival Study of Timing Decisions in the Persian Gulf War,” published in Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 17, pp. 1–170, 1995).
Blake E. Ashforth is Professor of Management at Arizona State University—Tempe. He received his PhD from the University of Toronto. His research interests include the adjustment of newcomers to work, the dysfunctions of organizational structures and processes, and the links between individual-, group-, and organization-level phenomena. His recent work has focused on socialization, identity, and labeling processes. He is currently a consulting editor for Academy of Management Review, and he is on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences.
James R. Barker is Assistant Professor of Organizational Theory and Strategy in the Department of Management at the U.S. Air Force Academy. He received his PhD from the University of Colorado. Research interests focus on the development and analysis of control practices in technological and knowledge-based organizations. Recent projects include collaborative research with scientists at the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. He has also worked with a variety of public, private, and service organizations. His teaching interests focus on the application of theoretical principles to solve day-to-day organizational problems. He has taught a variety of courses that emphasize the development of critical thinking and decision-making skills. His work has appeared in a number of professional journals, including Administrative [Page 301]Science Quarterly, Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, and Advances in the Interdisciplinary Study of Teamwork. He is Associate Editor of Western Journal of Communication and serves on the editorial board of Administrative Science Quarterly.
Jay B. Barney is Professor of Management and holder of the Bank One Chair for Excellence in Corporate Strategy at the Max M. Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University. He received his MA and PhD from Yale University. His research focuses on the relationship between idiosyncratic firm skills and capabilities and sustained competitive advantage. He has published over 30 articles in a variety of journals, including Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, and Journal of Management and has served on the editorial boards of several journals. He has also delivered scholarly papers at Harvard Business School, Wharton School of Business, and a number of U.S. and international universities and has published two books: Organizational Economics(with William G. Ouchi) and Managing Organizations: Strategy, Structure, and Behavior (with Ricky Griffin). In addition, he has consulted with a wide variety of public and private organizations, focusing on implementing large-scale organizational change and strategic analysis.
Hamid Bouchikhi is Associate Professor of Management at Essec, France. He holds a PhD in management studies from Paris-Dauphine University. His main research areas are in organization theory, management, executive careers, and entrepreneur-ship. He has published in Organization Science, Organization Studies, and Organization. In 1997, he coedited with Martin Kilduff and Richard Whittington a special issue of Organization Studies on “Action, Structure, and Organizations.” He is currently working with John Kimberly on organizational identity and its role in shaping strategies and managerial processes in organizations.
J. Stuart Bunderson is completing his doctoral studies at the Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota. His current research interests include the management of pluralistic organizations (multiple identities and values) and the organization and management of professional work. His dissertation research builds on extensive fieldwork in health care organizations to develop a contingency theory of value pluralism in professional organizations.
Janet M. Dukerich is Associate Professor in the Management Department at the University of Texas at Austin. She received her PhD in organizational behavior from the University of Minnesota. Her current research interests focus on the antecedents and consequences of strong versus weak organizational identification, as well as on the processes by which individuals interpret complex, value-laden organizational issues. She recently received a grant from the Construction Industry Institute to study high-performance project teams in the construction industry. Her research has appeared in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Research in [Page 302]Organizational Behavior, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Journal of Business Ethics.
Kimberly D. Elsbach is Assistant Professor of Management in the Graduate School of Management at University of California, Davis. Her research focuses on the perception and management of individual and organizational images, identities, and reputations. She has studied these symbolic processes in variety of contexts ranging from the California cattle industry, the National Rifle Association, and radical environmentalist groups to Hollywood screenwriters. Her work has been published in a number of scholarly outlets, including Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, and Organization Science, and she serves on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Organizational Research Methods.
C. Marlene Fiol is Associate Professor of Strategic Management at the University of Colorado—Denver. She holds a PhD in strategic management from the University of Illinois. Her research focuses on cognitive processes in organizations, especially as they relate to strategic change, organizational learning, and innovation. Her most recent work examines the dynamic interplay between identity and reputation at the level of individuals, organizations, and communities. The purpose of this work is to determine the impact of alignments and misalignments of these internal and external beliefs on the ultimate effectiveness and health of the entity in question.
Peter Foreman is currently a doctoral candidate in organizational behavior at the University of Illinois. His dissertation is a theory-building case study of an integrated health care delivery system, investigating the strategies that organizations and individuals use to manage multiple and competing identities. He has also studied how competing identity-based expectations impact rural cooperatives. His research interests also include decision making, the resource-based view of the firm, institutions and deinstitutionalization, and crafting strategy. He has studied identity and cognitive processes in various settings, including agricultural cooperatives, meat packing and processing firms, ornamental horticulture (nursery) growers, biotechnology firms, and health care providers.
Charles J. Fombrun is Professor of Management in the Leonard N. Stern School of Business at New York University.
Dennis A. Gioia is Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Smeal College of Business Administration at Pennsylvania State University. His main research and writing interests continue to focus on understanding the cognitive processes of organization members and how these processes affect the ways in which people make sense of their experience. His more recent work has concerned the study of organizational identity and image, and especially the relationship between the two concepts (see “Identity, Image, and Issue Interpretation,” with James Thomas, in Administrative Science Quarterly, 1996). In a former incarnation, prior to his ivory tower career, he worked in the real world as an engineer for Boeing Aerospace at Cape Kennedy [Page 303]during the Apollo lunar program. He then earned his MBA and went to work for Ford Motor Company. In the years since, he has been working in the world of academia while trying to keep one foot planted in the realm of practical reality. As evidence that he really has been working rather than simply peering from the tower, his work has appeared in many of the most visible journals in organization study. He has edited two books: The Thinking Organization (with Hank Sims) and Creative Action in Organizations (with Cam Ford). On top of that, he continues to be a member of the MBA core faculty, to do executive programs, to do his bit within the university and the community, and to try to live a balanced and rewarding life.
Mary Ann Glynn is Associate Professor of Organization and Management at Goizueta Business School, Emory University. She earned her PhD at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University. Current research focuses on the topics of creativity, innovation, and playfulness; intelligence and learning; and organizational identity and members' identification. Her research has been published in Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Marketing, POETICS, and Journal of Empirical Research on Literature, the Media, and the Arts, and she serves on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Review, Organization Science, and Journal of Management.
Paul C. Godfrey is Assistant Professor in the Marriott School of Management at Brigham Young University. Interests include organizational identity, strategic change, organizational change, and the philosophy of management. His work has been published in Strategic Management Journal, and he has written a number of articles dealing with management history and the philosophy of science and management. He and his wife, Robin, are the proud parents of three children.
Karen Golden-Biddle is Associate Professor of Organizational Analysis at the University of Alberta. She earned her PhD in 1988 at Case Western Reserve University and taught at Emory University prior to her present position. In her research, she examines the cultural and language-based aspects of organizational life. This research interest takes two particular directions. First, she analyzes how culture and identity shape organizational change. A recent article in this area is “Breaches in the Boardroom: Organizational Identity and Conflicts of Commitment in a Nonprofit Organization” (with H. V. Rao, in Organization Science, 1997). Second, she analyzes how scientific knowledge is constructed in organizational studies. Her most recent article in this area is “Constructing Opportunities for Contribution: Structuring Intertextual Coherence and Problematizing in Organizational Studies” (with K. Locke, in Academy of Management Journal, 1997). In addition, she recently completed a book, Composing Qualitative Research (with K. Locke, 1997), which examines writing up qualitative research for management journals. She is coeditor of the nontraditional research section of Journal of Management Inquiry and is on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal and Organizational Research Methods. She currently serves as Pre-Conference Chair and Program Chair-Elect for the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management.
[Page 304]Loren T. Gustafson is Assistant Professor of Management in the School of Business and Economics at Seattle Pacific University. He earned his PhD in strategic management from Arizona State University, following 8 years of marketing and management experience in the financial services industry. His work has been published in leading journals, including Academy of Management Review and Academy of Management Executive. His paper “Using Organizational Identity to Achieve Stability and Change in High Velocity Environments” (coauthored with Rhonda Reger) won the 1995 Best Paper Award from the Managerial and Organizational Cognition Interest Group of the Academy of Management. His primary research interests include strategic change and renewal, organizational identity, managerial and organizational cognition, and strategies in turbulent environments.
Celia V. Harquail is Assistant Professor of Business Administration at Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia, where she teaches organizational behavior and managing creative organizations. She holds an AB in political theory from Bryn Mawr College and a PhD in organizational behavior from the Graduate School of Business at the University of Michigan. Six years were spent at Procter & Gamble, where she served as an organizational development consultant implementing team-based work systems, work system redesign, and total quality processes and as a line manager in sales and manufacturing. Her research focuses on the interaction of organizational identity and image, the symbolism of organizational and self-presentations, social identification with and within organizations, diversity, and change-oriented participation in organizations. She is currently writing about women's advocacy as a microprocess of organizational resistance and change and about how individuals can manage their organizational identification in turbulent economic environments.
Mary Jo Hatch is Professor of Organization Theory at Cranfield School of Management in England. She received her PhD from Stanford University and has taught organization theory at San Diego State University and University of California, Los Angeles and at Copenhagen Business School in Denmark. Current research interests include narrative approaches to organizational complexity theory; text and discourse analysis as applied to managerial and organizational talk; applications of postmodern thinking to organization theory and management; and aesthetics and organizing. She is also engaged in an analysis of the interactions of managerial and academic subcultures in the context of management education programs. Her articles have appeared in Academy of Management Review, Administrative Science Quarterly Journal of Management Inquiry, Organization Science, Organization Studies, and Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies. She is author of Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic and Postmodern Perspectives, a textbook published by Oxford University Press. She is European Editor of Journal of Management Inquiry and has done guest editing for Organization Science and Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies. She is an active members of the Academy of Management, the British Academy of Management, the European Group for Organization Studies, and the Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism.
[Page 305]Anne S. Huff is Professor of Strategic Management at the University of Colorado—Boulder, with a joint appointment at Cranfield School of Management in England. She received her PhD from Northwestern University and has been on the faculty at UCLA and the University of Illinois. Her research interests focus on strategic change both as a dynamic process of interaction among firms and as a cognitive process affected by the interaction of individuals over time. She is Senior Editor for Organization Science and the strategy editor for Foundations in Organization Science. She is currently on the editorial board of Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management Studies, and The British Journal of Management. For 1997–1998, she is President-Elect of the Academy of Management.
John R. Kimberly is Professor of Management in the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania.
Roderick Kramer is an Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at Stanford University Graduate School of Business. He received his PhD in social psychology from UCLA in 1985. His research is on cooperation and conflict. He has coedited Trust in Organizations (with Tom Tyler), Negotiation as a Social Process (with David Messick), Influence in Organizations (with Margaret Neale), and The Psychology of the Social Self'(with Tom Tyler and Oliver John).
Luis L. Martins is Assistant Professor of Management in the School of Business Administration at the University of Connecticut. He received his PhD in management from the Leonard N. Stern School of Business at New York University. His current research interests include reputational rankings, managerial interpretations of issues in their environment, and diversity in organizational groups.
Judi McLean Parks obtained her PhD in organizational behavior from the University of Iowa in 1990. In 1995, she joined the Organizational Behavior group at the John M. Olin Graduate School of Management, Washington University at St. Louis. She has consulted in each of these areas. Prior to coming to Washington University, she was Assistant Professor in the Industrial Relations Department at the University of Minnesota. Her research, which focuses on the “psychological contract” between employers and employees and how the nature of the employer/employee relationship is changing, has examined the impact of perceived injustice and its implications in terms of employee behaviors, organizational identification, workplace violence, and revenge. Currently, she is examining the implications of broken psychological contracts and high levels of organizational identification in predicting reactions of disaffected workers and workplace violence. Her work has been appeared in such publications as Academy of Management Journal, Human Resources Management, International Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Applied Social Psychology Journal of Organizational Behavior, Research in Organizational Behavior, Research on Negotiation in Organizations, Trends in Organizational Behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Wake Forest Law Review.
[Page 306]Michael G. Pratt is Assistant Professor of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He received his BA from the University of Dayton and his MA and PhD from the University of Michigan. His primary research interests center on how conflicts within and between organizational and professional belief systems affect members' interpretations of and attachments to their organizations. More specifically, his interests include topics such as organizational symbolism, professional and organizational identities, socialization, organizational identification, sense making, and emotions (ambivalence) in organizations. He has examined identity conflicts within physicians and nurses. However, he has also done in-depth studies of such diverse organizations as libraries, direct-selling organizations, reinsurance companies, and group homes. His recent publications include “Organizational Dress as a Symbol of Multilayered Social Identities” (with Anat Rafaeli, Academy of Management Journal, 1997); “Emotions and Unlearning in Amway Recruiting Techniques: Promoting Change Through ‘Safe’ Ambivalence” (with C. K. Barnett, Management Learning, 1997); and “Merck & Co, Inc.: From Core Competence to Community Involvement” (with J. E. Dutton, 1997) in The Public's Eye: Best Practices of Global Corporate Citizenship.
Hayagreeva “Huggy” Rao is Associate Professor of Organization and Management and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Emory University. In his research, he studies how institutional and ecological processes lead to the creation, transformation, and extinction of organizational forms and routines. His research has been published in American Journal of Sociology, Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Organization Studies, Journal of Management Studies, and Journal of Marketing. His recent publications include “Structuring a Theory of Moral Sentiments: Institution-Organization Co-Evolution in the Early Thrift Industry” (with Heather Haveman, in American Journal of Sociology, May 1997) and “Caveat Emptor: The Construction of Non-Prof it Consumer Watchdogs” (also in American Journal of Sociology, forthcoming). He serves on the editorial boards of Administrative Science Quarterly and Organization Science.
Rhonda K. Reger is Associate Professor of Strategic Management at Maryland Business School, University of Maryland. She earned her MBA and PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Prior to joining the faculty of Maryland Business School in 1995, she served as a faculty member at Arizona State University and the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is especially interested in cognitive barriers to implementing fundamental organizational changes such as total quality and reengineering. In the international arena, she has examined international joint ventures and the international entry decisions made by smaller and medium-size firms. She is author of over a dozen articles and book chapters. These articles have appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Executive, Strategic Management Journal, and Organization Science. She is [Page 307]recipient (with Loren Gustafson) of the 1995 Best Paper Award given by the Academy of Management's Managerial and Organizational Cognition Interest Group.
Violina P. Rindova is a doctoral candidate in management at the Leonard N. Stern School of Business, New York University. She has a JD from Sophia University and an MBA from Madrid Business School, University of Houston. She has published several book chapters and presented papers about corporate governance, reputation management, and corporate communications. Her current research applies text analysis to study the use of corporate communications for image and reputation management and development of competitive advantage. She serves as a reviewer for Academy of Management Review.
Yolanda Sarason is Assistant Professor of Strategy at the Anderson School of Management, University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. She has an MBA, as well as a PhD in strategic management, from the University of Colorado at Boulder. She has published articles on strategic management, the management of technology, and entrepeneurship in Journal of High Technology Management, Journal of New Business Venturing, and Journal of Management Education. Her dissertation focused on integrating organizational identity into a structuration theory framework and in applying this framework in an investigation of the Baby Bells since divestiture. Current research activities include a qualitative investigation of organizational identity in local hospitals and responses of these hospitals to changes in managed health care.
Majken Schultz is Professor of Intercultural Leadership at Copenhagen Business School from which she received her PhD. Her research has focused on organizational symbolism, organizational culture, organizational identity, intercultural collaboration, and change processes. She is currently in charge of a 4-year research program, “Interplay Between Organizational Culture, Identity, and Image,” which includes studies of both identity consultants and companies involved in identity processes. Her work has been published in Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management Inquiry, Organization Studies, Organization, International Studies of Management and Organization, European Journal of Marketing, Corporate Reputation Review, and Studies in Organization, Cultures and Societies. In English she has published “Understanding Organizational Cultures: Diagnosis and Understanding.”
J. L. “Larry” Stimpert is Associate Professor of Business and Economics at the Colorado College. He received his MBA. from Columbia University and his PhD in business administration from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Prior to his academic career, he worked for Norfolk Southern Corporation and the Chicago and North Western Transportation Company in various research and management positions. His research and teaching interests include managerial cognition, executive leadership, diversification, corporate strategy, and organizational structure. His articles have appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management Studies, and several other publications. He is a member [Page 308]of the Academy of Management and the Strategic Management Society. He and his wife, Lesley, live in Colorado Springs and enjoy hiking and backpacking.
James B. Thomas is Senior Associate Dean and Professor of Management at Pennsylvania State University.
David A. Whetten is Jack Wheatley Professor of Organizational Behavior and Director of the Center for the Study of Values in Organizations at Brigham Young University. Prior to joining the Marriott School of Management faculty in 1994, he was on the faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for 20 years, where he served as Associate Dean of the College of Commerce, Harry Gray Professor of Business Administration, and Director of the Office of Organizational Research. He currently is editor of Foundations for Organizational Science, an academic book series, and previously was editor of Academy of Management Review. He has published over 50 articles and books on the subjects of interorganizational relations, organizational effectiveness, organizational decline, organizational identity, and management education. His pioneering and award-winning management text Developing Management Skills, coauthored with Kim Cameron, is in its third edition and was recently adapted for the European market under the title Developing Management Skills for Europe.