Identity, Ethnic Diversity and Community Cohesion


Edited by: Margaret Wetherell, Michelynn Laflèche & Robert Berkeley

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    This book is the result of a collaboration between the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme ( and the Runnymede Trust (

    It is our shared belief that policy and academic research are often too far apart. It has been a particular pleasure to work together on this project and at the same time show how policy researchers and academic researchers can learn from each other and work in tandem on areas of common concern and interest.

    This book came about as a result of a seminar hosted in September 2005 by the Royal Geographical Society. We would like to thank the RGS for hosting our seminar, and their Head of Education and Outdoor Learning, Steve Brace, for his contribution on the day. His re-interpretation of the RGS archives gave an extra dimension to our awareness of the matter in hand. Kerry Carter from the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme co-ordinated the seminar and did a superb job deftly coping with competing demands arriving from many directions at once.

    We would also like to thank all of those who attended the seminar, giving their thoughts, ideas and reflections on the issues raised and thereby enhancing our understandings.

    Moving from seminar to publication has been made much easier thanks to Ros Spry from Runnymede. Ros acted as our project manager and in a wonderfully calm and elegant manner kept the book on track, editing and preparing the final manuscript. We could not have produced the book without her.

    Finally, we would like to thank our contributors who have been gracious and generous with their time, and, as you will see from their contributions, insightful and engaging in their writing. They have made editing this collection a pleasure and advanced our understanding of the challenges and complexities we face in studying and understanding our multi-ethnic society.

    The Editors, MargaretWetherell, ESRC, MichelynnLaflèche and RobertBerkeley, Runnymede

    The ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme

    The ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme consists of 25 research projects in UK universities focused on identity and social exclusion; identity, community conflict and community cohesion; emerging identity trends and identity and political engagement.

    The Runnymede Trust is an independent policy research organization focusing on equality and justice through the promotion of a successful multi-ethnic society. Founded in 1968 as a Charitable Educational Trust, Runnymede has a long track record in policy research, working in close collaboration with eminent thinkers and policymakers in the public, private and voluntary sectors.

    Biographical Information on Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Margaret Wetherell is Professor of Social Psychology at the Open University and Director of the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme. She is a former Editor of the British Journal of Social Psychology. She has authored or edited 13 books including Discourse and Social Psychology; Mapping the Language of Racism; Identities, Groups and Social Issues; Men in Perspective: Practice, Power and Identity and Citizens at the Centre. Her empirical research focuses on race and gender issues and, most recently, citizenship and discursive democracy, while her theoretical work focuses on developing discourse theories and methods for social psychology.

    Michelynn Laflèche has been Director of the Runnymede Trust since 2001. As Director, she leads the development and review of the Trust's annual work programme and strategic policy direction. Her own areas of specialization include European policy, employment, citizenship and human rights, youth, and voluntary sector development. She has studied and worked on social justice issues relating to race and gender in Canada, Germany and the UK. Recent publications and presentations include: ‘Unlocking the UK's diverse cultural heritage’ (conference 2004); and ‘Meritocracy and Ethnic Minorities: Face, Race and Place’ (Political Quarterly 2005).

    Robert Berkeley is Deputy Director of Runnymede. A sociologist with a PhD from Trinity College, Oxford, he has led Runnymede's follow-up work to the Parekh Report, with particular emphasis on community cohesion, effective regulation of public services, and involving young people in debates on the future of multi-ethnic Britain. Rob is now responsible for Runnymede's strategic policy research programme, and makes presentations, runs workshops and seminars in the UK and continental Europe, and addresses policy papers to government on issues of current concern. His publications, written mostly for Runnymede's own work programme, include: Guardians of Race Equality: Perspectives on Inspection and Regulation(2003), Realising the Vision (2004), Civil Renewal for All (2004), What's New about New Immigrants in Twenty-First Century Britain? with Omar Khan and Mohan Ambikaipaker (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2005).

    The Contributors

    Dr Claire Alexander is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the London School of Economics. Her research interests are in the area of race, ethnicity, masculinity and youth identities, particularly in relation to ethnography. Her main publications include The Art of Being Black (OUP 1996) and The Asian Gang (Berg 2000). She is co-editor of Beyond Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, July 2002), and Making Race Matter: Bodies, Space and Identity (Palgrave 2005) and editor of Writing Race: Ethnography and Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, May 2006).

    Avtar Brah is Professor of Sociology at Birkbeck College in the University of London. Her publications include: Cartographies of Diaspora, and Contesting Identities; and in co-edited volumes: Hybridity and Its Discontents: Politics, Science, Culture; Global Futures: Migration, Environment and Globalisation; and Rethinking Identities: Racism, Ethnicity and Culture.

    Ed Cairns is Professor of Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Ulster in Coleraine, Northern Ireland. He has spent 30 years studying the psychological aspects of political violence in relation to the conflict in Northern Ireland. During this time he has been a visiting scholar at the Universities of Florida, Cape Town and Melbourne. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association and a Past President of the Division of Peace Psychology of the APA. His most recent book, co-edited with M. Roe, is The Role of Memory in Ethnic Conflict (Palgrave/Macmillan 2003).

    Simon Clarke is Professor of Psycho-Social Studies and Director of The Centre for Psycho-Social Studies at the University of the West of England. Simon is author of Social Theory, Psychoanalysis and Racism (2003); From Enlightenment to Risk: Social Theory and Contemporary Society (2005) and Emotion, Politics and Society (2006, with Hoggett and Thompson). Simon is a member of the Board of Directors of the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society and is Editor of the journal Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society.

    Dr Steve Garner is at the School of Sociology, University of the West of England, Bristol since 2003. His PhD, on ethnicity, class, and gender in Guyana, was completed in 1999. He has worked outside academia, as a researcher at the Central Statistics Office, Ireland and on EU projects for local government 1999–2001. Now at UWE he is researching whiteness in the European context and the experiences of countries of traditional emigration becoming countries of new immigration. Recent publications include:

    Racism in the Irish Experience (Pluto, 2003), and Guyana 1838–1985: Critical Perspectives on Ethnicity, Class and Gender (Ian Randle Press, Jamaica 2005).

    Kate Gavron is a trustee and fellow at the Young Foundation and a vice-chair of the Runnymede Trust. She did research in Tower Hamlets with the late Michael Young throughout the 1990s, and her most recent publication, in co-authorship with Geoff Dench and Michael Young, is The New East End: Kinship, Race and Conflict (Profile Books 2006).

    Rosie Gilmour is at the Centre for Psycho-Social Studies of the University of the West of England, Bristol. She has worked as a teacher and in market research, where she specialized in qualitative research. Her recently completed MA in Social Anthropology from SOAS enlarged on a special interest in the Middle East, the dissertation dealing with the unveiling of Muslim schoolgirls in France. Currently working on the ESRC project entitled Mobility and Unsettlement: New Identity Construction in Contemporary Britain, Rosie has been interviewing in both Plymouth and Bristol.

    Miles Hewstone is Professor of Social Psychology and Fellow of New College, Oxford, and has previously held chairs in social psychology at the universities of Bristol and Cardiff, UK and Mannheim, Germany. He has researched and published widely in the general field of experimental social psychology. His major topics of research, thus far, have been: attribution theory, social cognition, social influence, stereotyping and intergroup relations, and intergroup conflict. His books include: The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, edited with A. S. R. Manstead (Blackwell 1995); and Stereotypes and Stereotyping, edited with C. N. Macrae and C. Stangor (Guilford 1996). His work over the last 5–6 years addresses the topic of ‘Cross-Community Contact, Sectarian Attitudes and Forgiveness in Northern Ireland’, and he has co-authored numerous articles and book chapters on what he calls ‘the most pressing problem of British inter-group relations’.

    Joanne Hughes is Professor of Applied Policy Studies at the University of Ulster. Her main research interests and areas of expertise are community relations policy, inter-group contact theory and the role of integrated education in divided societies on which she has published widely. Professor Hughes has directed/co-directed research projects that have examined, inter alia, the relationship between cross-community contact and attitudes to ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland; ‘single identity’ community relations work in Northern Ireland; the use of partnerships in community governance; and peace education efforts in Northern Ireland and Israel. Reflecting the policy orientation of her work, Professor Hughes has been an adviser to OFMDFM and CRC, she has also been Director of the Community Relations module on the Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey.

    Dilwar Hussain is Head of Policy Research at the Islamic Foundation, Leicestershire, and was appointed a Commissioner to the Commission for Racial Equality in April 2006. He regularly lectures and trains on his primary research interests of citizenship, Muslim communities in Europe and Britain, and British Muslim identity, and he worked on the ‘Preventing Extremism Together’ workgroups set up by the Home Office after 7 July 2005. His most recent publications include Faithful Cities (May 2006) for the Commission on Urban Life and Faith, and, with Furbey et al., Faith as Social Capital (March 2006) for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    Nick Johnson is the Director of Policy and Public Sector at the Commission for Racial Equality. In this role he is responsible for strategic development on issues of integration, diversity, identity and public policy. This includes working to ensure that public authorities meet their legislative and policy targets on race issues. Nick is also an adviser to the Institute of Community Cohesion and has worked as a consultant in the public sector, as a political adviser and researcher, and is currently writing a book on the political legacy of Senator Robert F. Kennedy.

    Omar Khan is a doctoral candidate in Indian politics at St Antony's College, Oxford. He has recently been in Delhi pursuing his research on the justification of preferential policies in India. Prior to his doctoral studies Omar worked as a researcher at the Runnymede Trust, and since 2001 he has maintained that connection as a consulting policy researcher. He writes articles and reviews for the Runnymede Quarterly Bulletin. In 2006 these included: ‘The Theory of Events – Tolerance, Secularism and Groups’ (March); ‘Grounding Community Cohesion in Democratic Values’ (June), and a Runnymede Perspectives Paper entitled Why Preferential Policies Can Be Fair – Achieving Equality for Members of Disadvantaged Groups (September), launched at the CRE in November 2006.

    Bhikhu Parekh is a Professor of Political Philosophy at the University of Westminster and a Labour member of the House of Lords. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and President of the Academy of Social Sciences. He has published several widely acclaimed books in Political Philosophy, the latest being Rethinking Multiculturalism, published by Harvard University Press and Palgrave in 2000. He was Chair of the Runnymede Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. The report was published in 2000.

    Dr Coretta Phillips is at the Social Policy Department of the London School of Economics and the Mannheim Centre for the Study of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Her research interests focus on the relationship between ethnicities, racism, and crime and criminal justice, minority perspectives and issues around community safety policy and practice. Her publications include: Racism, Crime and Justice, with Ben Bowling (Pearson Education 2002); ‘Facing Inwards and Outwards?: Institutional Racism, Race Equality and the Role of Black and Asian Professional Associations’, article in Criminal Justice 5(4): 357–77 (2005); ‘Ethnicity Racism, Crime and Criminal Justice’, chapter co-authored with Ben Bowling in The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 4th edn (OUP 2006).

    Ben Rogaly is Senior Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Sussex, where he also convenes an MA programme in Migration Studies. He is currently researching ‘white’ migration histories in the UK and the employment of migrant workers in British and Indian agriculture. Ben's books include Poverty, Social Exclusion and Microfinance in Britain (co-authored with Thomas Fisher and Ed Mayo), and Labour Mobility and Rural Society (co-edited with Arjan de Haan).

    Henry Tam is Deputy Director, Local Democracy, Department for Communities and Local Government, responsible for developing a cross-government approach to the engagement of citizens in solving public problems. From 2000 to 2002 he was the Home Office's Director for Community Safety and Regeneration in the East of England. Prior to joining the Home Office, he was the Deputy Chief Executive at St Edmundsbury Borough Council where his duties included corporate management and community development. He is a Fellow of the Globus Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development, University of Tilburg, the Netherlands. His published books include: Progressive Politics in the Global Age (2001); Communitarianism: A New Agenda for Politics and Citizenship (1998); and Responsibility and Personal Interactions (1990).

    Nicole Tausch completed her doctorate at Oxford University, where she is currently a post-doc. Her research interests include processes in stereotype change, intergroup contact and intergroup conflict.

    Becky Taylor is a social historian and research fellow based at the Centre for Migration, University of Sussex. Her research interests revolve around the relationship between the state and minority and marginal groups, particularly in the context of the development of the welfare state. These themes are explored in her next book, A Minority and the State: Travellers in Britain in the Twentieth Century (MUP, forthcoming).

  • Bibliography

    Alexander, C. (2000) The Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Identity, Masculinity. Oxford: Berg.
    Alexander, C. (2004) Imagining the Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Masculinity and Youth after “the Riots”', Critical Social Policy, 24 (4): 526–49.
    Alexander, C. (2005) ‘Embodying Violence: “Riots”, Dis/Order and the Private Lives of “the Asian Gang”’, in C.Alexander and C.Knowles (eds), Making Race Matter: Bodies, Space and Identity. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Alexander, C., Edwards, R. and Temple, B. (2007) ‘Contesting Cultural Communities: Language, Ethnicity and Citizenship’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (forthcoming).
    Allen, C. (2003) Fair Justice: The Bradford Disturbances, the Sentencing and the Impact. London: FAIR.
    Allport, G. W. (1954) The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
    Amin, A. (2002) ‘Ethnicity and the Multicultural City: Living with Diversity’, Environment and Planning A, 34: 959–80.
    Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
    Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
    Appiah, K. A. (2005) The Ethics of Identity. Woodstock, Oxon: Princeton University Press.
    Archer, L. (2001) ‘“Muslim Brothers, Black Lads, Traditional Asians”: British Muslim Young Men's Constructions of Race, Religion and Masculinity’, Feminism & Psychology, 11 (1): 79–105.
    Back, L. (1996) New Ethnicities and Urban Culture – Racisms and Multiculture in Young Lives. London: UCL Press.
    Barker, M. (1981) The New Racism. London: Junction Books.
    Bauman, Z. (1996) ‘From Pilgrim to Tourist – or a Short History of Identity’, in S.Hall and P.Du Gay (eds), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage.
    Bauman, Z. (2001) The Individualized Society. London: Polity Press.
    BBC (2006) ‘Minister Says BNP Tempting Voters’ (16 April). [at:]
    Berkeley, R. (2005) ‘Civil Renewal, Social Capital and Ethnic Diversity’. Proceedings of the Runnymede Conference on Social Capital, Civil Renewal and Ethnic Diversity. London: The Runnymede Trust.
    Berkeley, R. (2006) ‘An Interview with the Power Commission’, Runnymede's Quarterly Bulletin, No. 346 (March): 2–5.
    Blalock, H. M. (1967) ‘Percent Non-white and Discrimination in the South’, American Sociological Review, 22: 677–82.
    Blokland, T. (2003) ‘Ethnic Complexity: Routes to Discriminatory Repertoires in an Inner-city Neighbourhood’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 26: 1–24.
    Boal, F. W., Murray, C. R. and Poole, M. A. (1976) ‘Belfast: The Urban Encapsulation of a National Conflict’, in S. C.Clarke and J. L.Obler (eds), Urban Ethnic Conflict: A Comparative Perspective, Comparative Urban Studies Monograph no. 3, pp. 77–131. Chapel Hill, NC: Institute for Research in Social Science, University of North Carolina.
    Bornat, J. (1989) ‘Oral History as a Social Movement: Reminiscence and Older People’, Oral History, 17(2).
    Bosworth, M. (1999) Engendering Resistance: Agency and Power in Women's Prisons. Aldershot: Dartmouth Publishing Company.
    Bosworth, M. and Carrabine, E. (2001) ‘Reassessing Resistance’, Punishment & Society3 (4): 501–15.
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. (2002) Racism, Crime and Justice. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    Brah, A. (1996) Cartographies of Diaspora, Contesting Identities. London and New York: Routledge.
    Brah, A. (2000) ‘The Scent of Memory: Strangers, Our Own, and Others’, in A.Brah and A.Coombes (eds), Hybridity and Its Discontents: Politics, Science, Culture. London and New York: Routledge.
    Brah, A. (2002) ‘Global Mobilities, Local Predicaments: Globalization and the Critical Imagination’, Feminist Review (70).
    Brewer, M. B. (1993) ‘The Role of Distinctiveness in Social Identity and Group Behavior’, in M.Hogg and D.Abrams (eds), Group Motivation: Social Psychological Perspectives, pp. 1–16. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Brewer, M. B. and Campbell, D. T. (1976) Ethnocentrism and Intergroup Attitudes: East African Evidence. New York: Halstead Press.
    Brewer, M. B. and Gaertner, S. L. (2001) ‘Toward Reduction of Prejudice: Intergroup Contact and Social Categorization’, in R.Brown and S. L.Gaertner (eds), Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology: Intergroup Processes, pp. 451–74. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brewer, M. B. and Pierce, K. P. (2005) ‘Social Identity Complexity and Outgroup Tolerance’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31: 428–37.
    Brighouse, H. and Swift, A. (2006) ‘Parents' Rights and the Value of the Family’, Ethics, 117(1), October.
    Brown, G. (2006) ‘The Future of Britishness’ (keynote speech to the Fabian Future of Britishness conference, 14 January).[at:]
    Brown, R. and Hewstone, M. (2005) ‘An Integrative Theory of Intergroup Contact’, in M.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 37, pp. 255–343. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    BurgatF. (2003) ‘Veils and Obscuring Lenses’, in J.Esposito and F.Burgat (eds), Modernizing Islam – Religion in the Public Sphere in the Middle East and Europe. London: Hurst and Co.
    Burgess, S., Wilson, D. and Lupton, R. (2005) ‘Parallel Lives? Ethnic Segregation in Schools and Neighbourhoods’, Urban Studies42 (7): 1027–56.
    Cabinet Office (2005) Choice and Voice in the Reform of Public Services. Government Response to the PASC Report – Choice, Voice and Public Services. London: The Stationery Office. [at:]
    Cairns, E. and Darby, J. (1998) The Conflict in Northern Ireland: Causes, Consequences, and Controls', American Psychologist, 53: 754–60.
    Cairns, E. and Mercer, G.W. (1984) ‘Social Identity in Northern Ireland’, Human Relations, 37: 1095–102.
    Cantle, T. (2001) Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review Team. London: Home Office.
    Carroll, L. (1974) Hacks, Blacks and Cons: Race Relations in a Maximum Security Prison. London: D. C. Heath.
    Cassidy, C. and Trew, K. (1998) ‘Identities in Northern Ireland: A Multidimensional Approach’, Journal of Social Issues, 54: 725–40.
    Castells, M. (1997) The Information Age, Vol 2: The Power of Identity. Oxford: OUP.
    CFMEB – Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain (2000) The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: The Parekh Report. London: Profile Books for the Runnymede Trust.
    Cheliotis, L. K. and Liebling, A. (2006) ‘Race Matters in British Prisons: Towards a Research Agenda’, British Journal of Criminology46 (2): 286–317.
    Chigwada-Bailey, R. (2003) Black Women's Experiences of Criminal Justice – Race, Gender and Class: A Discourse on Disadvantage. Winchester: Waterside Press.
    Clarke, S. (2002) ‘Learning from Experience: Psycho-social Research Methods in the Social Sciences’, Qualitative Research, 2 (2): 173–94.
    Clarke, S. (2003) Social Theory, Psychoanalysis and Racism. London: Palgrave.
    Clarke, S. and Garner, S. (2005) ‘Psychoanalysis, Identity and Asylum’, Psychoanalysis, culture & Society, 10 (2): 197–206.
    Commission for Racial Equality (1998) Stereotyping and Racism: Findings from Two Attitude Surveys. London: CRE.
    Commission for Racial Equality (2002) The Voice of Britain. London: CRE.
    Commission for Racial Equality (2003a) A Formal Investigation by the Commission for Racial Equality into HM Prison Service of England and Wales – Part 1: The Murder of Zahid MubarekLondon: CRE.
    Commission for Racial Equality (2003b) A Formal Investigation by the Commission for Racial Equality into HM Prison Service of England and Wales – Part 2: Racial Equality in Prisons. London: CRE.
    Councell, R. (2004) Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2003, England and Wales. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 15/04. London: Home Office.
    Crewe, B. (2005a) ‘Codes and Conventions: The Terms and Conditions of Contemporary Inmate Values’, in A.Liebling and S.Maruna (eds), The Effects of Imprisonment. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
    Crewe, B. (2005b) ‘Prisoner Society in the Era of Hard Drugs’, Punishment & Society, 7 (4): 457–81.
    Crisp, R. J. and Hewstone, M. (1999) ‘Differential Evaluation of Crossed Category Groups: Patterns, Processes, and Reducing Intergroup Bias’, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2: 307–33.
    Damer, S. (1989) From Moorepark to ‘Wine Alley’: The Rise and Fall of a Glasgow Housing Scheme. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    DCLG (2006) Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society. ‘One year on – A progress report on the Government's strategy for race equality and community cohesion’ (July). London: Department for Communities and Local Government.
    Deaux, K. (1996) ‘Social Identification’, in E. T.Higgins and A. W.Kruglanski (eds), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles, pp. 777–98. New York: Guilford.
    Delanty, G. (2003) Community. London: Routledge.
    Derrida, J. (1976) Of GrammatologyBaltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1982) Margins of Philosophy (trans.). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Diaz-Cotto, J. (1996) Gender, Ethnicity and the State: Latina and Latino Prison Politics. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Dorling, D. (2005) ‘Why Trevor is Wrong about Race Ghettos’, The Observer, 25 September, pp. 14–15.
    Dworkin, R. (1978) ‘Liberalism’, in S.Hampshire (ed.), Public and Private Morality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Edgar, K. and Martin, C. (2004) Perceptions of Race and Conflict: Perspectives of Minority Ethnic Prisoners and of Prison Officers. RDS On-line Report 11/04. London: Home Office.
    Edgar, K., O'Donnell, I. and Martin, C. (2003) Prison Violence: The Dynamics of Conflict, Fear and Power. Cullompton: Willan.
    Ellis, T., Tedstone, C. and Curry, D. (2004) Improving Race Relations in Prison: What Works? RDS On-Line Report 12/04. London: Home Office.
    Faulkner, D. (2006) ‘Reflections on the Fabian New Year Conference: Who Do We Want to Be? The Future of Britishness’, Runnymede's Quarterly Bulletin, No. 346 (March): 6.
    Fine, B. (2005) ‘If Social Capital is the Answer, We Have the Wrong Questions’, in Social Capital, Civil Renewal and Ethnic Diversity: Procedings of a Runnymede Conference, pp. 75–81. London: the Runnymede Trust.
    Flax, J. (1990) Thinking Fragments: Psychoanalusis, Feminism and Postmodernism in the Contemporary West. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Forman, T. (2003) ‘From pet to threat? Minority concentration, school racial context and white youths' racial attitudes.’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Illinois at Chicago.
    Forrest, R. and Murie, A. (1991) Selling the Welfare State. London: Routledge.
    Foucault, M. (1979) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Foucault, M. (1998) Michel Foucault: Aesthetics, Method and Epistemology (J. D.Faubion, trans. Vol. 2). New York: The New Press.
    Frosh, S., Phoenix, A. and Pattman, R. (2002) Young Masculinities. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Gaertner, S. and Dovidio, J. (2000) Reducing Intergroup Bias: The Common Ingroup Identity Model. Hove: Psychology Press.
    Gallagher, A. M. (1995) ‘The Approach of Government: Community Relations and Equity’, in S.Dunn (ed.), Facets of the Conflict in Northern Ireland, pp. 27–43. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Genders, E. and Player, E. (1989) Race Relations in Prison. Oxford: OUP.
    Giddens, A. (1986) ‘Action, Subjectivity and the Constitution of Meaning’, Social Research, 53.
    Gilchrist, A. (2004) Community Cohesion and Community Development: Bridges or Barricades. London: Community Development Foundation and the Runnymede Trust.
    Gilroy, P. (1987) There Ain't No Black in the Union Jack. London: Hutchinson.
    Gilroy, P. (2004) After Empire: Melancholia or Convivial Culture?London: Routledge.
    Goffman, E. (1961) Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates. New York: Anchor.
    Goffman, E. (1975) Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Goodhart, D. (2004) ‘Too Diverse?’, Prospect Magazine [] (February).
    Gotovos, A. (2003) ‘Minority Discourse, Social State and the Imposition of Identity: Side Effects of the Ideology of Multi-culturalism’, in Gypsy Identities in Europe: Policy and Research. Greece: University of Ioannina.
    Granovetter, M. (1973) ‘Strength of Weak Ties’, American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360–80.
    Grapendaal, M. (1990) ‘The Inmate Subculture in Dutch Prisons’, British Journal of Criminology, 30(3): 341–57.
    The Guardian (2006) ‘Muslims Who Want Sharia Law Should Leave’, 27 February.
    Gutmann, A. (2003) Identity in Democracy. Woodstock, Oxon: Princeton University Press.
    Halfacree, K. H. and Boyle, P. J. (1993) ‘The Challenge Facing Migration Research: The Case for a Biographical Approach’, Progress in Human Geography17(3).
    Hall, S. (1990) ‘Cultural Identity and Diaspora’, in J.Rutherford (ed.), Identity: Community, Culture, Difference, pp. 222–37. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Hall, S. (1992) ‘New Ethnicities’, in J.Donald and A.Rattansi (eds), Race, Culture and Difference, pp. 256–8. London: Sage.
    Hall, S. (1996) ‘Who Needs Identity?’, in S.Hall and P.du Gay (eds), Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage.
    Hall, S. (2000) ‘The Multicultural Question’, in B.Hesse (ed.), Un/Settled Multiculturalisms. London: Zed Press.
    Hallinan, M. T. and Teixeira, R. A. (1987) ‘Students' Interracial Friendships: Individual Characteristics, Structural Effects and Racial Differences’, American Journal of Education, 95: 563–83.
    Hammerton, A. J. and Thomson, A. (2005) ‘Ten Pound Poms’: Australia's Invisible Migrants. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Henderson, M., Cullen, F. and Carroll, L. (2000) ‘Race, Rights, and Order in Prison: A National Survey of Wardens on the Racial Integration of Prison Cells’, Prison Journal, 80(3): 295–308.
    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Prisons (2005) Parallel Worlds: A Thematic Review of Race Relations in Prisons. London: HMIP.
    Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., Voci, A., Paolini, S., McLernon, F., Crisp, R. and Niens, U. (2005) ‘Intergroup Contact in a Divided Society: Challenging Segregation in Northern Ireland’, in D.Abrams, J. M.Marques and M. A.Hogg (eds), The Social Psychology of Inclusion and Exclusion, pp. 265–92. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
    Hewstone, M., Hughes, J. and Kenworthy, J. (2006) Generalised Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice: From Cross-community Contact to Reduced Racial Prejudice in Northern Ireland. Manuscript in preparation.
    Hewstone, M., Tausch, N., Voci, A., Kenworthy, J., Hughes, J. and Cairns, E. (in press) ‘Why Neighbours Kill: Prior Intergroup Contact and Killing of Ethnic Out-group Neighbours’, in V.Esses and R.Vernon (eds), Why Neighbours Kill. Oxford: Blackwell (SPSSi series).
    Hewstone, M., Turner, R., Kenworthy, J. and Crisp, R. (2006) ‘Multiple Social Categorization Integrative Themes and Future Research Priorities’, in R. J.Crisp and M.Hewstone (eds), Multiple Social Categorization: Processes, Models and Applications (forthcoming), pp. 271–310. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).
    Hill, M. (1997) The Policy Process in the Modern State. London: Prentice Hall.
    Hoggett, P. (1992) ‘A Place for Experience: A Psychoanalytic Perspective on Boundary, Identity, and Culture’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 10: 345–56.
    Hollway, W. and Jefferson, T. (2000) Doing Qualitative Research Differently: Free Association, Narrative and the Interview Method. London: Sage.
    Home Office (2001) Community Cohesion: A Report of the Independent Review Team (chaired by TedCantle). London: The Home Office.
    Home Office (2003) Prison Statistics England and Wales 2002. Cm 5996. London: Home Office.
    Home Office (2004) 2003 Home Office Citizenship Survey: People, Families and Communities. Research Study 289. London: Home Office.
    Home Office (2005a) Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society: The Government's Strategy to Increase Race Equality and Community Cohesion. London: Home Office.
    Home Office (2005b) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System – 2004. London: Home Office.
    Home Office (n.d.) Respect Action Plan [at:]
    Hughes, E. C. (1971) The Sociological Eye: Selected Papers. Chicago, IL: Aldine Atherton.
    Imrie, R. and Raco, M. (2003) ‘Community and the Changing Nature of Urban Policy’, in R.Imrie and M.Raco (eds), Urban Renaissance: New Labour, Community and Urban Policy. Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Irwin, J. and Cressey, D. (1962) ‘Thieves, Convicts and the Inmate Culture’, Social Problems, 10(2): 142–55.
    Isal, S. (2006) Equal Respect – ASBOs and Race Equality. London: The Runnymede Trust.
    Jacobs, J. B. (1977) Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Society. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    Jacobs, J. B. (1979) ‘Race Relations and the Prisoner Subculture’, in N.Morris and M.Tonry (eds). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
    Jenkins, R. (1996) ‘Categorization: Identity, Social Process and Epistemology’, Current Sociology, 48(3).
    Jewkes, Y. (2002) Captive Audiences: Media, Masculinity and Power in Prisons. Cullompton: Willan.
    Kalra, V. S. (2002) ‘Extended View: Riots, Race and Reports: Denham, Cantle, Oldham and Burnley Inquiries’, Sage Race Relations Abstracts27(4): 20–30.
    Kelly, R. (2006). Speech on Integration and Cohesion (launch of the Commission on Integration and Cohesion, 24 August) [at:]
    Khan, O. (2006a) ‘Grounding Community Cohesion in Democratic Values’, Runnymede's Quarterly Bulletin, no. 346 (June): 5–6.
    Khan, O. (2006b) Why Preferential Policies Can Be Fair – Achieving Equality for Members of Disadvantaged Groups. Perspectives Paper, September. London: Runnymede Trust.
    Kundnani, A. (2002) ‘The Death of Multiculturalism’, Institute of Race Relations [at:] (24/04/02).
    Kymlicka, W. (1989) Liberalism, Community and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Larkman Project Group (1984) The Larkman Project Group. Norwich: University of East Anglia.
    LeVine, R. A. and Campbell, D. T. (1972) Ethnocentrism: Theories of Conflict, Ethnic Attitudes, and Group Behavior. New York: Wiley.
    Levitas, R. (1998) The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labour. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan.
    Local Government Association (2006) Leading Cohesive Communities: A Guide for Local Authority Leaders and Chief Executives. London: LGA Publications.
    Lucey, H., Melody, J. and Walkerdine, V. (2003) ‘Transitions to Womanhood: Developing a Psychosocial Perspective in One Longitudinal Study’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6(3): 279–84.
    McGhee, D. (2003) ‘Moving to “Our” Common Ground – A Critical Examination of Community Cohesion Discourse in Twenty-first Century Britain’, Sociological Review, 51(3): 376–404.
    McGhee, D. (2005) Intolerant Britain? Hate, Citizenship and Difference. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
    McLaren, V. (2005) ‘Civil Renewal – A Matter of Trust?’Proceedings of the Runnymede Conference on Social Capital, Civil Renewal and Ethnic Diversity. London: the Runnymede Trust.
    Macpherson, W. (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny. London: Stationery Office.
    Margalit, A. and Raz, J. (1994) ‘National Self-Determination’, in J.Raz (ed.), Ethics in the Public Domain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Massey, D. (1995) ‘The Conceptualization of Place’, in D.Massey and P.Jess (eds), Place in the World?Oxford: OUP.
    Massey, D. (1999) ‘Imagining Globalization: Power-geometries of Time-space’, in A.Brah, M. J.Hickman and M. MacanGhail (eds), Global Futures: Migration, Environment and Globalization. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Miliband, D. (2006) ‘More Power to the People.’ [at:]
    Morrison, Z. (2003) ‘Cultural Justice and Addressing “Social Exclusion”: A Case Study of a Single Regeneration Budget Project in Blackbird Leys, Oxford’, in R.Imrie and M.Raco (eds), Urban Renaissance? New Labour, Community and Urban Policy. Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Mosse, D. (1999) ‘Responding to Subordination: Identity and Change among South Indian Untouchable Castes’, in J. R.Campbell and A.Rew (eds), Identity and Affect: Experience of Identity in a Globalizing World. London: Pluto Press.
    NACRO (2000) Race: A Snapshot Survey. London: National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders.
    Nayak, A. (2003) Race, Place and Globalization: Youth Cultures in a Changing World. Oxford: Berg.
    Neighbourhood Renewal Unit (2005) New Deal for Communities 2001–2005: An Interim Evaluation. London: ODPM.
    Newton, C. (1994) ‘Gender Theory and Prison Sociology: Using Theories of Masculinities to Interpret the Sociology of Prisons for Men’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(3).
    Niens, U., Cairns, E. and Hewstone, M. (2003) ‘Contact and Conflict in Northern Ireland’, in O.Hargie and D.Dickson (eds), Researching the Troubles: Social Science Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict, pp. 123–40. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing.
    The Observer (2004) ‘Equality Chief Branded as “Right Wing”’, 4 April.
    Okamura, J. (1981) ‘Situational Ethnicity’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 4(4).
    Paolini, S., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E. and Voci, A. (2004) ‘Effects of Direct and Indirect Cross-group Friendships on Judgments of Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland: The Mediating Role of an Anxiety-reduction Mechanism’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30: 770–86.
    Parekh, B. (2006) ‘Reply to Goodhart’, Prospectno. 123 (June) [at:]
    Pateman, C. (1988) The Sexual Contract. Cambridge: Polity.
    Pettigrew, T. F. (1997) ‘Generalized Intergroup Contact Effects on Prejudice’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23: 173–85.
    Pettigrew, T. F. and Tropp, L. R. (2006) ‘A Meta-analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90: 751–83.
    Phillips, C. (2005) ‘Ethnic Inequalities under New Labour: Progress or Entrenchment?’, in J.Hills and K.Stewart (eds), A More Equal Society? New Labour, Poverty, Inequality and Exclusion. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Phillips, C. and Bowling, B. (2002) ‘Ethnicity, Racism, Crime and Criminal Justice’, in M.Maguire, R.Morgan and R.Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: OUP.
    Phillips, T. (2005) ‘After 7/7: Sleepwalking Back to Segregation’ (22 September). [at:]
    Phinney, J. S., Ferguson, D. L. and Tate, J. D. (1997) ‘Intergroup Attitudes among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: A Causal Model’, Child Development, 68: 955–69.
    Poole, M. and Doherty, P. (1996) Ethnic Residential Segregation in Northern Ireland. Coleraine: University of Ulster.
    Postmes, T. and Branscombe, N. R. (2002) ‘Influence of Long-term Racial Environmental Composition on Subjective Well-being in African Americans’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83: 735–51.
    Power, A. (1996) ‘Area Based Poverty and Resident Empowerment’, Urban Studies, 33(9).
    Prison Reform Trust (2004) Forgotten Prisoners – The Plight of Foreign National Prisoners in England and Wales. London: Prison Reform Trust.
    Public Administration Select Committee (House of Commons) (2005) Choice, Voice and Public Services. Fourth Report of Session 2004–05. London: The Stationery Office.
    Putnam, R. D. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Putnam, R. D., (ed.) (2002) Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ramadan, T. (2005) Citizenship and Belonging: What is Britishness?London: Ethnos for the Commission for Racial Equality.
    Rampton, A. (1981) West Indian Children in Our Schools. London: The Stationery Office.
    Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Reidpath, D. D. (2003) ‘“Love Thy Neighbour” – It's Good for Your Health: A Study of Racial Homogeneity and Mortality’, Social Science and Medicine, 57: 253–61.
    ‘Respect’ website [access it at:]
    Rew, A. and Campbell, J. R. (1999) ‘The Political Economy of Identity and Affect’, in J. R.Campbell and A.Rew (eds), Identity and Affect: Experience of Identity in a Globalizing World. London: Pluto Press.
    Ripstein, A. (1997) ‘Context, Continuity, and Fairness’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Roccas, S. and Brewer, M. B. (2002) ‘Social Identity Complexity’, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6: 88–106.
    Rogaly, B., Coppard, D., Rana, K., Rafique, A., Sengupta, A. and Biswas, J. (2004) ‘Seasonal Migration, Employer-Worker Interactions, and Shifting Ethnic Identities in Contemporary West Bengal’, in F.Osella and K.Gardner (eds), Migration, Modernity and Social Transformation in South Asia. New Delhi/Thousand Oaks, CA/London: Sage.
    Rogaly, B., Fisher, T. and Mayo, E. (1999) Poverty, Social Exclusion and Micro-Finance in Britain. Oxford: Oxfam; London: New Economics Foundation.
    Rose, N. (1999) Powers of Freedom. Cambridge: CUP.
    Runnymede (2005) Social Capital, Civil Renewal and Ethnic Diversity. London: the Runnymede Trust.
    Runnymede (2006) ‘Proposal for Pensions Reform: Implications for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities.’London: the Runnymede Trust. [access this at:]
    Rustin, M. (1991) ‘Psychoanalysis, Racism and Anti-Racism’, in M.Rustin, The Good Society and the Inner World, pp. 57–84. London: Verso.
    Seabrook, J. (1973) City Close-up. London: Penguin.
    Sen, A. (2006) Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. London: Allen Lane.
    Sennett, R. (1977) The Fall of Public Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Sennett, R. (1998) The Corrosion of Character. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Sennett, R. (2003) Respect: The Formation of Character in a World of Inequality. London: Allen Lane.
    Shotter, J. (1984) Social Accountability and Selfhood. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Sibley, D. (1995) Geographies of Exclusion: Society and Difference in the West. London: Routledge.
    Sim, J. (1994) ‘Tougher than the Rest? Men in Prison’, in T.Newburn and E. A.Stanko (eds), Just Boys Doing Business?: Men, Masculinities and Crime. London: Routledge.
    Simpson, L. (2004) ‘Racial Segregation: Measures, Evidence and Policy’, Urban Studies, 41(3): 661–81.
    Sixsmith, A. J. (1988) ‘The Meaning and Experience of “Home” in Later Life’, in R.Perks and A.Thomson (eds), The Oral History Reader. Oxford: OUP.
    Smith, A. M. (1992) New Right Discourses on Race and Sexuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Social Exclusion Unit (1998) Bringing Britain Together: A National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal. London: HMSO.
    Social Exclusion Unit (2002) Reducing Re-Offending by Ex-Prisoners. London: Social Exclusion Unit.
    Solomos, J. (2003) Race and Racism in Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan
    Spalek, B. and Wilson, D. (2002) ‘Racism and Religious Discrimination in Prison: The Marginalisation of Imams in their Work with Prisoners’, in B.Spalek (ed.), Islam, Crime and Criminal Justice. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
    Sparks, R., Battoms, T. and Hay, W. (1996) Prisons and the Problem of Order. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Spelman, E. V. (1988) Inessential Woman: Problems of Exclusion in Feminist Thought. London: The Women's Press.
    Stephan, W. G. and Stephan, C. (1985) ‘Intergroup Anxiety’, Journal of Social Issues, 41: 157–75.
    Strathern, M. (1992) After Nature: English Kinship in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge: CUP.
    Swann, Lord (1985) Education for All. London: The Stationery Office.
    Sykes, G. M. (1958) The Society of Captives: A Study of a Maximum Security Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sykes, G. M. and Messinger, S. L. (1960) ‘The Inmate Social System’, in G. H.Grosser, R.McCleery, L. E.Ohlin, G. M.Sykes and S. L.Messinger (eds), Theoretical Studies in the Social Organization of the Prison. New York, NY: Social Science Research Council; London: Allen Lane.
    Tam, H. (2005) ‘Civil Renewal and Diversity’. Proceedings of the Runnymede Conference on Social Capital, Civil Renewal and Ethnic Diversity. London: The Runnymede Trust.
    Tausch, N., Hewstone, M. and Cairns, E. (2006) ‘Contact, attitudes and identity among young Catholics and Protestants living in mixed and segregated areas of Northern Ireland.’ Manuscript in preparation.
    Taussig, M. (1993) Mimes and Alterity: A Particular History of the Senses. London: Routledge.
    Taylor, C. (1994) Multiculturalism, edited by A.Gutmann. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Taylor, M. C. (1998) ‘How White Attitudes Vary with the Racial Composition of Local Populations: Numbers Count’, American Sociological Review, 63: 512–35.
    The Telegraph (2001) ‘Blunkett in Furore over “British Test”’, 10 December.
    Tonnies, F. (1988) Community and Society (Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft). Somerset, NJ, and London: Transaction Publishers.
    Trew, K. (1986) ‘Catholic-Protestant Contact in Northern Ireland’, in M.Hewstone and R.Brown (eds), Contact and Conflict in Intergroup Encounters, pp. 93–106. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Varshney, A. (2003) Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Vasta, E., (ed.) (2000) Citizenship, Community and Democracy. London: Palgrave.
    Wacquant, L. (2001) ‘Deadly Symbiosis: When Ghetto and Prison Meet and Mesh’, in D.Garland (ed.), Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences. London: Sage Publications.
    Wagner, U., Christ, O., Pettigrew, T. F., Stellmacher, J., Wolf, C. (2006) ‘Prejudice and Minority Proportion: Contact Instead of Threat Effects’, Social Psychology Quarterly, 69: 380–90.
    Webster, C. (2002) ‘Race, Space and Fear: Imagined Geographies of Racism, Crime, Violence and Disorder in Northern England’, Capital & Class, 80: 95–122.
    Wilkinson, R. G. (2005) The Impact of Inequality: How to Make Sick Societies Healthier. London: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
    Willis, P. (1977) Why Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs. Farnborough, Hants: Saxon House.
    Wilson, D. (2003) ‘“Keeping Quiet” or “Going Nuts”: Some Emerging Strategies Used by Young Black People in Custody at a Time of Childhood Being Re-Constructed’, Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(5): 411–25.
    Wolch, J. and DeVerteuil, G. (2001) ‘New Landscapes of Urban Poverty Management’, in J.May and N.Thrift (eds), Timespace: Geographies of Temporality. London/New York: Routledge.
    Wood, J. and Adler, J. (2001) ‘Gang Activity in English Prisons: The Staff Perspective’, Psychology Crime & Law, 7: 167–92.
    World Bank (n.d.) Social capital web resource. [at:]
    Wright, S. C., Aron, A., McLaughlin-Volpe, T. and Ropp, S. A. (1997) ‘The Extended Contact Effect: Knowledge of Cross-group Friendships and Prejudice’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73: 73–90.
    Younge, G. (2005) ‘Please Stop Fetishising Integration. Equality is What we Really Need’, The Guardian (19 September).
    Zizek, S. (1993) Tarrying with the Negative. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website