Identity, Ethnic Diversity and Community Cohesion

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Edited by: Margaret Wetherell, Michelynn Laflèche & Robert Berkeley

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    Acknowledgements

    This book is the result of a collaboration between the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme (http://www.identities.org.uk) and the Runnymede Trust (http://www.runnymedetrust.org).

    It is our shared belief that policy and academic research are often too far apart. It has been a particular pleasure to work together on this project and at the same time show how policy researchers and academic researchers can learn from each other and work in tandem on areas of common concern and interest.

    This book came about as a result of a seminar hosted in September 2005 by the Royal Geographical Society. We would like to thank the RGS for hosting our seminar, and their Head of Education and Outdoor Learning, Steve Brace, for his contribution on the day. His re-interpretation of the RGS archives gave an extra dimension to our awareness of the matter in hand. Kerry Carter from the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme co-ordinated the seminar and did a superb job deftly coping with competing demands arriving from many directions at once.

    We would also like to thank all of those who attended the seminar, giving their thoughts, ideas and reflections on the issues raised and thereby enhancing our understandings.

    Moving from seminar to publication has been made much easier thanks to Ros Spry from Runnymede. Ros acted as our project manager and in a wonderfully calm and elegant manner kept the book on track, editing and preparing the final manuscript. We could not have produced the book without her.

    Finally, we would like to thank our contributors who have been gracious and generous with their time, and, as you will see from their contributions, insightful and engaging in their writing. They have made editing this collection a pleasure and advanced our understanding of the challenges and complexities we face in studying and understanding our multi-ethnic society.

    The Editors, MargaretWetherell, ESRC, MichelynnLaflèche and RobertBerkeley, Runnymede

    The ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme

    The ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme consists of 25 research projects in UK universities focused on identity and social exclusion; identity, community conflict and community cohesion; emerging identity trends and identity and political engagement.

    The Runnymede Trust is an independent policy research organization focusing on equality and justice through the promotion of a successful multi-ethnic society. Founded in 1968 as a Charitable Educational Trust, Runnymede has a long track record in policy research, working in close collaboration with eminent thinkers and policymakers in the public, private and voluntary sectors.

    Biographical Information on Editors and Contributors

    The Editors

    Margaret Wetherell is Professor of Social Psychology at the Open University and Director of the ESRC Identities and Social Action Programme. She is a former Editor of the British Journal of Social Psychology. She has authored or edited 13 books including Discourse and Social Psychology; Mapping the Language of Racism; Identities, Groups and Social Issues; Men in Perspective: Practice, Power and Identity and Citizens at the Centre. Her empirical research focuses on race and gender issues and, most recently, citizenship and discursive democracy, while her theoretical work focuses on developing discourse theories and methods for social psychology.

    Michelynn Laflèche has been Director of the Runnymede Trust since 2001. As Director, she leads the development and review of the Trust's annual work programme and strategic policy direction. Her own areas of specialization include European policy, employment, citizenship and human rights, youth, and voluntary sector development. She has studied and worked on social justice issues relating to race and gender in Canada, Germany and the UK. Recent publications and presentations include: ‘Unlocking the UK's diverse cultural heritage’ (conference 2004); and ‘Meritocracy and Ethnic Minorities: Face, Race and Place’ (Political Quarterly 2005).

    Robert Berkeley is Deputy Director of Runnymede. A sociologist with a PhD from Trinity College, Oxford, he has led Runnymede's follow-up work to the Parekh Report, with particular emphasis on community cohesion, effective regulation of public services, and involving young people in debates on the future of multi-ethnic Britain. Rob is now responsible for Runnymede's strategic policy research programme, and makes presentations, runs workshops and seminars in the UK and continental Europe, and addresses policy papers to government on issues of current concern. His publications, written mostly for Runnymede's own work programme, include: Guardians of Race Equality: Perspectives on Inspection and Regulation(2003), Realising the Vision (2004), Civil Renewal for All (2004), What's New about New Immigrants in Twenty-First Century Britain? with Omar Khan and Mohan Ambikaipaker (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2005).

    The Contributors

    Dr Claire Alexander is Senior Lecturer in Sociology at the London School of Economics. Her research interests are in the area of race, ethnicity, masculinity and youth identities, particularly in relation to ethnography. Her main publications include The Art of Being Black (OUP 1996) and The Asian Gang (Berg 2000). She is co-editor of Beyond Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, July 2002), and Making Race Matter: Bodies, Space and Identity (Palgrave 2005) and editor of Writing Race: Ethnography and Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, May 2006).

    Avtar Brah is Professor of Sociology at Birkbeck College in the University of London. Her publications include: Cartographies of Diaspora, and Contesting Identities; and in co-edited volumes: Hybridity and Its Discontents: Politics, Science, Culture; Global Futures: Migration, Environment and Globalisation; and Rethinking Identities: Racism, Ethnicity and Culture.

    Ed Cairns is Professor of Psychology in the School of Psychology at the University of Ulster in Coleraine, Northern Ireland. He has spent 30 years studying the psychological aspects of political violence in relation to the conflict in Northern Ireland. During this time he has been a visiting scholar at the Universities of Florida, Cape Town and Melbourne. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association and a Past President of the Division of Peace Psychology of the APA. His most recent book, co-edited with M. Roe, is The Role of Memory in Ethnic Conflict (Palgrave/Macmillan 2003).

    Simon Clarke is Professor of Psycho-Social Studies and Director of The Centre for Psycho-Social Studies at the University of the West of England. Simon is author of Social Theory, Psychoanalysis and Racism (2003); From Enlightenment to Risk: Social Theory and Contemporary Society (2005) and Emotion, Politics and Society (2006, with Hoggett and Thompson). Simon is a member of the Board of Directors of the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society and is Editor of the journal Psychoanalysis, Culture & Society.

    Dr Steve Garner is at the School of Sociology, University of the West of England, Bristol since 2003. His PhD, on ethnicity, class, and gender in Guyana, was completed in 1999. He has worked outside academia, as a researcher at the Central Statistics Office, Ireland and on EU projects for local government 1999–2001. Now at UWE he is researching whiteness in the European context and the experiences of countries of traditional emigration becoming countries of new immigration. Recent publications include:

    Racism in the Irish Experience (Pluto, 2003), and Guyana 1838–1985: Critical Perspectives on Ethnicity, Class and Gender (Ian Randle Press, Jamaica 2005).

    Kate Gavron is a trustee and fellow at the Young Foundation and a vice-chair of the Runnymede Trust. She did research in Tower Hamlets with the late Michael Young throughout the 1990s, and her most recent publication, in co-authorship with Geoff Dench and Michael Young, is The New East End: Kinship, Race and Conflict (Profile Books 2006).

    Rosie Gilmour is at the Centre for Psycho-Social Studies of the University of the West of England, Bristol. She has worked as a teacher and in market research, where she specialized in qualitative research. Her recently completed MA in Social Anthropology from SOAS enlarged on a special interest in the Middle East, the dissertation dealing with the unveiling of Muslim schoolgirls in France. Currently working on the ESRC project entitled Mobility and Unsettlement: New Identity Construction in Contemporary Britain, Rosie has been interviewing in both Plymouth and Bristol.

    Miles Hewstone is Professor of Social Psychology and Fellow of New College, Oxford, and has previously held chairs in social psychology at the universities of Bristol and Cardiff, UK and Mannheim, Germany. He has researched and published widely in the general field of experimental social psychology. His major topics of research, thus far, have been: attribution theory, social cognition, social influence, stereotyping and intergroup relations, and intergroup conflict. His books include: The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, edited with A. S. R. Manstead (Blackwell 1995); and Stereotypes and Stereotyping, edited with C. N. Macrae and C. Stangor (Guilford 1996). His work over the last 5–6 years addresses the topic of ‘Cross-Community Contact, Sectarian Attitudes and Forgiveness in Northern Ireland’, and he has co-authored numerous articles and book chapters on what he calls ‘the most pressing problem of British inter-group relations’.

    Joanne Hughes is Professor of Applied Policy Studies at the University of Ulster. Her main research interests and areas of expertise are community relations policy, inter-group contact theory and the role of integrated education in divided societies on which she has published widely. Professor Hughes has directed/co-directed research projects that have examined, inter alia, the relationship between cross-community contact and attitudes to ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland; ‘single identity’ community relations work in Northern Ireland; the use of partnerships in community governance; and peace education efforts in Northern Ireland and Israel. Reflecting the policy orientation of her work, Professor Hughes has been an adviser to OFMDFM and CRC, she has also been Director of the Community Relations module on the Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey.

    Dilwar Hussain is Head of Policy Research at the Islamic Foundation, Leicestershire, and was appointed a Commissioner to the Commission for Racial Equality in April 2006. He regularly lectures and trains on his primary research interests of citizenship, Muslim communities in Europe and Britain, and British Muslim identity, and he worked on the ‘Preventing Extremism Together’ workgroups set up by the Home Office after 7 July 2005. His most recent publications include Faithful Cities (May 2006) for the Commission on Urban Life and Faith, and, with Furbey et al., Faith as Social Capital (March 2006) for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

    Nick Johnson is the Director of Policy and Public Sector at the Commission for Racial Equality. In this role he is responsible for strategic development on issues of integration, diversity, identity and public policy. This includes working to ensure that public authorities meet their legislative and policy targets on race issues. Nick is also an adviser to the Institute of Community Cohesion and has worked as a consultant in the public sector, as a political adviser and researcher, and is currently writing a book on the political legacy of Senator Robert F. Kennedy.

    Omar Khan is a doctoral candidate in Indian politics at St Antony's College, Oxford. He has recently been in Delhi pursuing his research on the justification of preferential policies in India. Prior to his doctoral studies Omar worked as a researcher at the Runnymede Trust, and since 2001 he has maintained that connection as a consulting policy researcher. He writes articles and reviews for the Runnymede Quarterly Bulletin. In 2006 these included: ‘The Theory of Events – Tolerance, Secularism and Groups’ (March); ‘Grounding Community Cohesion in Democratic Values’ (June), and a Runnymede Perspectives Paper entitled Why Preferential Policies Can Be Fair – Achieving Equality for Members of Disadvantaged Groups (September), launched at the CRE in November 2006.

    Bhikhu Parekh is a Professor of Political Philosophy at the University of Westminster and a Labour member of the House of Lords. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and President of the Academy of Social Sciences. He has published several widely acclaimed books in Political Philosophy, the latest being Rethinking Multiculturalism, published by Harvard University Press and Palgrave in 2000. He was Chair of the Runnymede Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain. The report was published in 2000.

    Dr Coretta Phillips is at the Social Policy Department of the London School of Economics and the Mannheim Centre for the Study of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Her research interests focus on the relationship between ethnicities, racism, and crime and criminal justice, minority perspectives and issues around community safety policy and practice. Her publications include: Racism, Crime and Justice, with Ben Bowling (Pearson Education 2002); ‘Facing Inwards and Outwards?: Institutional Racism, Race Equality and the Role of Black and Asian Professional Associations’, article in Criminal Justice 5(4): 357–77 (2005); ‘Ethnicity Racism, Crime and Criminal Justice’, chapter co-authored with Ben Bowling in The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 4th edn (OUP 2006).

    Ben Rogaly is Senior Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Sussex, where he also convenes an MA programme in Migration Studies. He is currently researching ‘white’ migration histories in the UK and the employment of migrant workers in British and Indian agriculture. Ben's books include Poverty, Social Exclusion and Microfinance in Britain (co-authored with Thomas Fisher and Ed Mayo), and Labour Mobility and Rural Society (co-edited with Arjan de Haan).

    Henry Tam is Deputy Director, Local Democracy, Department for Communities and Local Government, responsible for developing a cross-government approach to the engagement of citizens in solving public problems. From 2000 to 2002 he was the Home Office's Director for Community Safety and Regeneration in the East of England. Prior to joining the Home Office, he was the Deputy Chief Executive at St Edmundsbury Borough Council where his duties included corporate management and community development. He is a Fellow of the Globus Institute for Globalization and Sustainable Development, University of Tilburg, the Netherlands. His published books include: Progressive Politics in the Global Age (2001); Communitarianism: A New Agenda for Politics and Citizenship (1998); and Responsibility and Personal Interactions (1990).

    Nicole Tausch completed her doctorate at Oxford University, where she is currently a post-doc. Her research interests include processes in stereotype change, intergroup contact and intergroup conflict.

    Becky Taylor is a social historian and research fellow based at the Centre for Migration, University of Sussex. Her research interests revolve around the relationship between the state and minority and marginal groups, particularly in the context of the development of the welfare state. These themes are explored in her next book, A Minority and the State: Travellers in Britain in the Twentieth Century (MUP, forthcoming).

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