Hybrid Politics: Media and Participation
Publication Year: 2016
Hybrid Politics examines the combinations and competitions between older and newer media technologies, practices, actors, contents and logics, by exploring their potential and practical implications in terms of political participation. In this Swift, Laura Iannelli analyses the ‘hybridity’ of politics in democratic societies from a multidisciplinary perspective, identifying the diverse forms of power and political participation that coexist within the contemporary complex media sphere, and which influence participation in the spheres of institutionalised and protest politics. Building upon renowned global research and original case studies, the book proposes an innovative and challenging analytic strategy to understand, explain, and problematise the contemporary complexity of political participation and communication.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver’s Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Laura Iannelli 2016
First published 2016
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016944802
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Editor: Natalie Aguilera
Editorial assistant: Delayna Spencer
Production editor: Vanessa Harwood
Marketing manager: Sally Ransom
Cover design: Jen Crisp
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
Hybrid Politics covers the modern history of media and publics, from the mass media era to the age of social media. This comprehensive review of research in the field makes for a valuable sourcebook. Iannelli’s discussion of the changing relationships between citizens and media points out the need for new models to explain emerging forms of politics.
Lance Bennett, University of Washington
This scholarly book brings together concerns for political activism, democracy, new [and old] media and changing cultural practices. It makes an invaluable contribution to multidisciplinary social science thinking about ways in which our world is moving. Iannelli’s case studies – especially those from outside the US and UK – offer much needed illumination and understanding.
Frank Webster, City University London
Iannelli provides us with an insightful theorization and valuable resource for understanding the increasingly vital role played by communication in contemporary democratic politics.
Brian Loader, University of York
Hybrid Politics is a thorough, theoretically rich and pointed analytical intervention into the crowded terrain of participation research spanning media and communication studies, political science and sociology. The book achieves two very important goals. It assembles a minute chronology of media hybridity culminating with aspirations for democratic participation in their workings [and] at the same time, Laura Iannelli is able to navigate a very complex theoretical landscape to produce a truly interdisciplinary reading of intersecting media and the political, economic and social relations at their heart.
Dan Mercea, City University London
[Page vi]From the Occupy Movement in the US to The Island of Redundant Workers in Sardinia, Iannelli draws a powerful picture of contemporary instances of unconventional political participation where different media ecologies play an undisputed role. With its innovative take on hybrid politics, this volume successfully tackles the challenge to talk about politics, communication and the media with a fine-grained, interdisciplinary and theoretically-driven approach. Hybrid Politics is a remarkable work that provides a needed contribution to the study of political participation in contemporary democracies.
Stefania Vicari, University of Leicester
About the Author
References[Page 115][Page 130]1998) Audiences. A Sociological Theory of Performance and Imagination. London: Sageand (1976) Creating Reality. How TV News Distorts Events. Beverly Hills: Sage(1994) An ecology of communication: Toward a mapping of the effective environment. The Sociological Quarterly 35(4): 665–683(1979) Media Logic. Beverly Hills: Sageand (1991) Media Worlds in the Postjournalism Era. New York: Aldine de Gruyterand (2014) A liminal press: Situating news app designers within a field of networked news production. Digital Journalism 3(2): 192–208and (2011) Between creative and quantified audiences: Web metrics and changing patterns of newswork in local US newsrooms. Journalism 12(5): 550–566(2002) Global, Noglobal, New global. La protesta contro il G8 a Genova [Global, Noglobal, New Global. The Protest against the G8 in Genoa]. Roma/Bari: Laterza, , and (2011) The emerging viewertariat and BBC Question Time: Television debate and real-time commenting online. The International Journal of Press/Politics 16(4): 440–462and (2002) Alternative Media. London: Sage(2004) An Alternative Internet. New York: Columbia University Press(2014) Tra Facebook e i Tg. Esposizione mediale e percezione dei leader nella campagna elettorale italiana del 2013 [Between Facebook and the TV News. Media exposure and perception of leaders in the 2013 Italian electoral campaign]. Comunicazione Politica 1: 187–210, and (2006) The daily show effect: Candidate evaluations, efficacy, and American youth. American Politics Research 34(3): 341–367and (2014) Stewart, O’Reilly, and The Rumble 2012: Alternative political debate in the age of hybridity. Popular Communication: The International Journal of Media and Culture 12(2): 75–88(2010) Verso una critica del social networking: pratiche di rete nelle comunità radicali dalla mail art al caso di Anna Adamolo [Towards a critique of social networking: Network practices in radical communities from mail art to the case of Anna Adamolo]. Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements 2(2): 68–78(1997) The Reinvention of Politics. Rethinking Modernity in the Global Social Order. Cambridge: Polity Press([Page 116] (2006) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven: Yale University Press2012) Transformations through Twitter: The England riots, television viewership and negotiations of power through media convergence. Participations. Journal of Audience and Reception Studies 9(2): 511–525(2003) Communicating global activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics. Information, Communication & Society 6(2): 143–168(2011) Digital media and the personalization of collective action. Information, Communication & Society 14(6): 770–799and (2012) The logic of connective action. Information, Communication & Society 15(5): 739–768and (2013) The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressand (2014) La Politica in 140 Caratteri. Twitter e Spazio Pubblico [Politics in 140 Characters. Twitter and Public Space]. Milan: FrancoAngeli(ed) (2014) Prove tecniche di ibridazione mediale. Guardare la Tv e commentare su Twitter [Technical tests of media hybridisation. Watching TV and commenting on Twitter]. Comunicazione Politica 1: 61–78and (2015) Live tweeting a political debate: The case of the ‘Italia bene comune’. European Journal of Communication 30(6): 631–647and (1976) The agenda setting function of mass media at three levels of ‘information holding’. Communication Research 3(3): 261–274and (2003) Telestreet. Macchina Immaginativa non Omologata [Telestreet. A Non-incorporated Imagination Machine]. Milan: Baldini Castoldi Dalai, and (1954) Voting: A Study of Opinion Formation in a Presidential Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, and (1966] (1991) The Social Construction of Reality. A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. London: Penguin Booksand [1994) The Location of Culture. London/New York: Routledge(2013) Politica a 5 Stelle. Idee, Storia e Strategie del Movimento di Grillo [Five Star Politics. Ideas, History and Strategies of Grillo’s Movement]. Milan: Feltrinelliand (1980) Permanent Campaign. New York: Simon & Schuster(2013) Paradigms of civic communication. International Journal of Communication 7: 173–187.and (1999) The third age of political communication: Influences and features. Political Communication 16(3): 209–230and (2014) L’antipolitica in agenda. Temi e leader sui media mainstream nella campagna elettorale 2013 [Anti-politics on the agenda. Issues and leaders in mainstream media in the 2013 electoral campaign]. Comunicazione Politica 1: 115–132and (2012) Pubblici, Cittadini e Consumatori nella (Social) Network Society [Publics, Citizens and Consumers in the (Social) Network Society]. Milan: FrancoAngeli(1999) Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT Pressand (2013) Il Partito del Capo. Da Berlusconi a Renzi [The Boss’ Party. From Berlusconi to Renzi]. Milan: Apogeo(2014) Dopo Silvio, Matteo: un nuovo ciclo personale? La democrazia italiana tra berlusconismo e renzismo [After Silvio, Matteo: A new personal cycle? Italian democracy between berlusconism and renzism]. Comunicazione Politica 3: 437–462([Page 117] (1991) Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press1993) The Field of Cultural Production. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(2010) Social network sites as networked publics: Affordances, dynamics and implications. In: (ed) Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites. New York and London: Routledge, 39–58(2012) Fandom meets activism: Rethinking civic and political participation. In: and (eds) Transformative Works and Fan Activism. Transformative Works and Cultures 10. Available at http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/303/265 [January 15, 2016]and (2008) Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York: Peter Lang(1981) Crossroad: Notes on soap operas. Screen 4(22): 32–37(2012) (Not) The Twitter election. The dynamics of the #ausvotes conversation in relation to the Australian media ecology. Journalism Practice 6(3): 384–402and (1992) Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press(ed) (2007) Jamming the political: Beyond counter-hegemonic practices. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies 21(1): 71–90(2013) Introduction. In: , and (eds) Mediation and Protest Movements. Bristol: Intellect, 3–19, and (1960) The American Voter. New York: Wiley, , and (2011a) Media and Participation. A Site of Ideological-Democratic Struggle. Bristol: Intellect(2011b) The concept of participation. If they have access and interact, do they really participate? Communication Management Quarterly 21: 13–36(2011) Introduction: Interrogating audiences – Theoretical horizons of participation. Communication Management Quarterly 21: 7–12and (2013) Waves of media democratization: A brief history of contemporary participatory practices in the media sphere. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 19(3): 287–294, and (1996) The Rise of the Network Society. Cambridge: Blackwell(1997) The Power of Identity. Cambridge: Blackwell(2001) The Internet Galaxy. Reflections on the Internet, Business, and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press(2009) Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press(2012) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. London: Polity Press(2006) Internet Politics: States, Citizens, and New Communication Technologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press([Page 118] (2007) Digital network repertoires and organizational hybridity. Political Communication 24: 283–3012011a) The political information cycle in a hybrid news system: The British prime minister and the ‘bullygate’ affair. International Journal of Press/Politics 16(1): 3–29(2011b) Britain’s first live televised party leaders’ debate: From the news cycle to the political information cycle. Parliamentary Affairs 64(1): 24–44(2013) The Hybrid Media Systems: Politics and Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press(2016) Politics in the age of hybrid media: Power, systems, and media logics. In: , , , and (eds) The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics. London: Routledge, 7–22, and (2013) Wave-riding and hashtag jumping. Information, Communication & Society 16(5): 646–666(2000) Neo-Nazis and Taliban online: Anti-modern political movements and modern media. Democratization 7(1): 102–119(2010) Quando la società locale va in Rete. Uno studio di caso [When local society goes online. A case study]. In: and (eds) Le reti della comunicazione politica. Tra televisioni e social network. Florence: Firenze University Press, 45–68, and (2013) Anonymous in Context: The Politics and Power behind the Mask. Waterloo, Ontario: The Centre for International Governance Innovation(2012) Debate on television: The spectacle of deliberation. Television & New Media 14: 20–30(2009) The Internet and Democratic Citizenship. Theory, Practice and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressand (2001) Bowling together: Online public engagement in policy deliberation. London: Hansard Society. Available at http://www.acteurspublics.com/files/epublic/pdf/scoleman-jgotze-bowling-together.pdf [January 15, 2016]and (2014) Wrong turns towards revolution? Grassroots media and political participation in Italy (1967–2012). Communication Management Quarterly 30: 55–78(2013) Il partito di Grillo [Grillo’s Party]. Bologna: il Mulino, 197–214and (eds) (2015, August) World Map of Social Networks. Available at http://vincos.it/world-map-of-social-networks/ [January 15, 2016](2006) Mediatized Conflict: Developments in Media and Conflict Studies. Maidenhead: Open University Press(2008) Reporting demonstrations: The changing media politics of dissent. Media, Culture & Society 30(6): 853–872(2008) Mediatization or mediation? Alternative understandings of the emergent space of digital storytelling. New Media & Society 10(3): 373–391(2011) The necessary future of the audience ... and how to research it. In: (ed) Handbook of Media Audiences. Cambridge: Blackwell, 213–229(2012) Media, Society, World. Social Theory and Digital Media Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press(2003) Contesting Media Power. Alternative Media in a Networked World. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishersand (eds) (2005) Post-Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press(1991) Rethinking the media as a public sphere. In: and (eds) Communication and Citizenship: Journalism and the Public Sphere in the New Media Age. London: Routledge, 27–57(1995) Television and the Public Sphere. Citizenship, Democracy and the Media. London: Sage(2005) The internet, public spheres, and political communication: Dispersion and deliberation. Political Communication 22(2): 147–162([Page 119] (2009) Media and Political Engagement. Citizens, Communication, and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2011) Parameters of online participation: Conceptualising civic contingencies. Communication Management Quarterly 21: 87–110(1959] (1981) Detournement as negation and prelude. In: (ed) Situationist International Anthology. Berkeley: Bureau of Public Secrets, 55–56 (2011) The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press (1987) A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Pressand [1996) What Americans Know About Politics and Why It Matters. New Haven: Yale University Pressand (2013) Introduction. What is participatory culture? In: and (eds) The Participatory Cultures Handbook. New York/London: Routledge, 3–9and (1993) Culture jamming: Hacking, slashing and sniping in the empire of signs. Open Magazine pamphlet series(2010) Survival of the mediated. Journal of Cultural Science 3(2): 1–11(2014) An intermedia understanding of the networked Twitter ecology. The 2012 local elections in Belgium. In: and (eds) Social Media in Politics. Case Studies on the Political Power. London: Springer, 81–96and (2015) @Theviewer. Analyzing the offline and online impact of a dedicated conversation manager in the newsroom of a public broadcaster. New Media & Society. OnlineFirst Article, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444815583462and (2014) The effects of digital media on political knowledge and participation in election campaigns: Evidence from panel data. Communication Research 41(1): 95–118, , and (2008) Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond. Journalism Practice 2(3): 326–342, , , , and (2011) Co-viewing live TV with digital backchannel streams. EuroITV ‘11 Proceedings of the 9th International Interactive Conference on Interactive Television, 141–144, and (2003) New media, counter publicity and the public sphere. New Media & Society 5(2): 185–202and (1984) Radical Media: The Political Organization of Alternative Communication. Boston: South End Press(1988) The alternative public realm: The organization of the 1980s anti-nuclear press in West Germany and Britain. Media, Culture, and Society 10: 163–181(2001) Radical Media: Rebellious Communication and Social Movements. London: Sage, , and (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper(2007) Dream. Re-Imagining Progressive Politics in an Age of Fantasy. New York: The New Press(1968) La Struttura Assente: La Ricerca Semiotica e il Metodo Strutturale [The Absent Structure: Semiotic Research and the Structural Method]. Milan: Bompiani(1990) The Limits of Interpretation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press([Page 120] (2002) Making big apple crumble: The role of humor in constructing global response to disaster. New Directions in Folklore, 6. Available at http://scholarworks.iu.edu/journals/index.php/ndif/article/view/19883/25953 [January 15, 2016]2013) Introduction to special issue: Social media and election campaigns –key tendencies and ways forward. Information, Communication & Society 16(5): 637–645and (2001) Reframing public opinion as we have known it. In: and (eds) Mediated Politics. Communication in the Future of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 203–225and (1989) Democracy without Citizens. Media and the Decay of American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press(1993) Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication 43(4): 51–8(2013) Protest Camps. London/New York: Zed Books, and (1997) Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press(1987) Television Culture. London: Methuen(1989) Understanding Popular Culture. London: Routledge(2006) Modeling the structure of collective action. Communication Monographs 73(1): 29–54, and (1990) Italian Culture in the Industrial Era 1880–1980: Cultural Industries, Politics and the Public. Manchester: Manchester University Press(1999) The Antonio Gramsci Reader. Selected Writings 1916–1935. New York: New York University Press(ed) (1977) Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. New York: Atheneum(2004) When the going gets tough, the tough go photoshopping: September 11 and the newslore of vengeance and victimization. New Media & Society 6(5): 633–658(1990) Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy. Social Text 25/26: 56–80(2015) Of big birds and bayonets: Hybrid Twitter interactivity in the 2012 presidential debates. Information, Communication & Society 18(4): 390–406and (2014) Social Media: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage(1995) Constructing social protest. In: and (eds) Social Movements and Culture. London/New York: Routledge, 85–106(1993) Movements and media as interacting systems. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528: 114–125and (1979) Deciding What’s News. A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek and Time. New York: Pantheon Books(2012) Tweets and the Streets. Social Media and Contemporary Activism. London: Pluto Press(1994) The politics of media violence: Some reflections. In: and (eds) Mass Communication Research. Norwood: Ablex(1976) Living with television: The violence profile. Journal of Communication 26(2): 172–194and (1982) Charting the mainstream: Television’s contributions to political orientations. Journal of Communication 32(2): 100–127, , and (1991) Modernity and Self Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press(2002) Runaway World. How Globalization is Reshaping our Lives. London: Profile([Page 121] (2015) My experiences with Twitter social TV so far [slides]. Available at http://www.slideshare.net/fabio.giglietto/my-experiences-with-twitter-social-tv-so-far [January 15, 2016]2016) Researching disinformation within hybrid media ecologies. Where we are and where we are going. Call for AOIR 2016 Panel. Air-L mailing list. Available at http://listserv.aoir.org/pipermail/air-l-aoir.org/2016-January/032450.html [April 15, 2016], , and (1980) The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press(1998) Public sphere or public sphericules? In: and (eds) Media, Ritual and Identity. London: Routledge, 168–175(2015) Essere #Matteorenzi [Being #Matteorenzi]. Bologna: ilMulino(Google (2012) The new multi-screen world: Understanding cross-platform consumer behavior. Available at http://services.google.com/fh/files/misc/multiscreenworld_final.pdf [January 15, 2016]1987) Processing the News. How People Tame the Information Tide. New York: Longman(1994) Why voters fail information tests: Can the hurdles be overcome? Political Communication 11: 331–346(2012) Of snowspeeders and imperial walkers: Fannish play at the Wisconsin protests. In: and (eds) Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. Available at http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/353/296 [January 15, 2016](1995) The Electronic Republic. New York: Viking(2010) Premediation: Affect and Mediality After 9/11. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan(1962] (1989) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT Press (1984) Theory of Communicative Action. 2 vol. Cambridge: Polity Press (1996) Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge: MIT Press[2006) Political communication in mediated society. Communication Research 16(4): 411–426(1980) Encoding/Decoding in Television Discourse. In: , , and (eds) Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchinson, 128–138(1976) Resistance through Rituals: Youth Subculture in Post-War Britain. London: Hutchinson.and (eds) (2004) Comparing Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressand (1970) Demonstrations and Communication: A Case Study. London: Penguin, and (2014) Clicktivism: A systematic heuristic. Policy and the Internet 6(2): 115–132(2000) Alternative media: Conceptual difficulties, critical possibilities. Journal of Communication Inquiry 24(4): 357–378(2013) Digitally savvy citizenship: The role of internet skills and engagement in young adults’ political participation around the 2008 presidential election. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 57(2): 115–134and (1979) Subculture. The Meaning of Style. London: Methuen([Page 122] and (2008) A clash of cultures: The integration of user-generated content within professional journalistic frameworks at British newspaper websites. Journalism Practice 2(3): 343–3562012) Share, like, recommend. Journalism Studies 13(5–6): 815–824, , and (2013) More than a backchannel: Twitter and television. Participations 10(1): 13–17, and (1980) Housewives and the mass media. In: , , and (eds) Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchinson, 105–114(1982) Crossroad: The Drama of a Soap Opera. London: Methuen(1947] (2002) Dialectic of Enlightenment. Stanford: Stanford University Pressand [1980) The fruits of cultivation analysis: A reexamination of some effects of television watching. Public Opinion Quarterly 44(3): 287–302(2013) Democracy’s Fourth Wave? Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Pressand (1959) Political Socialization: A Study in the Psychology of Political Behavior. Glencoe: The Free Press(2010) Facebook & Co. Sociologia dei Social Network Sites [Facebook & Co. Sociology of Social Network Sites]. Milan: Guerini(2012) Quando la protesta diventa ‘pop’. Il caso dell’Isola dei Cassintegrati, tra web e mass media [When protest becomes ‘pop’. The case of the Island of Redundant Workers, between web and mass media]. Comunicazione Politica 2: 267–288(2014) Ripensare la partecipazione politica, tra grammatiche pop e siti di social network [Rethinking political participation, between pop grammars and social networks]. In: and (eds) Public screens. La politica tra narrazioni mediali e agire partecipativo. Roma: Sapienza University Press, 195–225(2015) Hybrid spaces of politics. The 2013 general elections in Italy, between talk shows and Twitter. Information, Communication & Society 18(9): 1006–1021and (2014) To govern artfully. Linking public art to political participation towards new forms of urban governance. In: and (eds) Lisbon Street Art & Urban Creativity 2014 International Conference. Lisbon, 234–241and (2014) Ganar o Morir. Lecciones Políticas en Juego de Tronos [Win or Die. Political lessons from Game of Thrones]. Madrid: Akal(ed) (Internet World Stats (2015, 30 November) World internet users and 2015 population stats. Available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm [January 15, 2016]2008) Introduction. In: (ed) Networked publics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1–14(1988) Star Trek return, read, rewritten: Fan writing as textual poaching. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 5(2): 85–107(1992) Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture. New York: Routledge(2006) Convergence Culture. Where Old and New Media Collide. New York/London: New York University Press(2010, September) Avatar activism. Le Monde Diplomatique. Available at http://mondediplo.com/2010/09/15avatar [January 15, 2016]([Page 123] (2012) ‘Cultural acupuncture’: Fan activism and the Harry Potter alliance. In: and (eds) Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. Available at http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/305/259 [January 15, 2016]2013) Theorizing participatory intensities. A conversation about participation and politics. Convergence 19(3): 265–286and (2008) Editorial: Convergence culture. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14(1): 5–12and (2013) Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York: New York University Press, and (2009) Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Cambridge: MIT Press, , and (2002) Activism! Direct Action, Hacktivism and the Future of Society. London: Reaktion Books(2014) The logic of political coverage on Twitter: Temporal dynamics and content. Journal of Communication 64(2): 239–259(2008) Networking Futures: The Movements against Corporate Globalization. London: Duke University Press(1973) Uses and gratifications research. The Public Opinion Quarterly 37(4): 509–523, and (2013) Democracy and Media Decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(1960) The Effects of Mass Communication. Glencoe: The Free Press(2000) No Logo. London: Flamingo(2015) The emergence of network media logic in political communication: A theoretical approach. New Media & Society 17(8): 1241–1257and (2012, 11 October) One-in-Ten ‘Dual-Screened’ the Presidential Debate. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Available at http://www.people-press.org/files/legacy-pdf/10-11-12%20Debate%20Media%20Release.pdf [January 15, 2016], , and (1993) Sociologie Politique. Paris: Press de la FNSP & Dalloz(1981) Watergate: An exploration of the agenda-building process. In and (eds) Mass Communication Review Yearbook 2. Newbury Park: Sage, 447–468and (2013) Tweeting the viewer: Use of Twitter in a talk show context. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 57(2): 135–152(1991] (1993) We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge: Harvard University Press[1948) The People’s Choice: The Media in a Political Campaign. New York: Columbia University Press, and (2004) Free Culture. How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity. New York: The Penguin Press(1984] (2001) Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (rev. edn). New York: Penguin-USA[2011) Alternative and Activist New Media. Cambridge: Polity Press(2014) Rising tides or rising stars? Dynamics of shared attention on Twitter during media events. PLoS ONE 9(5). Available at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0094093 [January 15, 2016], , and ([Page 124]  (1997) Public Opinion. New York: The Free Press1994) Watching talk: Engagement and gender in the audience discussion programme. Media, Culture and Society 16: 429–447(2005) On the relation between audiences and publics. In: (ed) Audience and Publics. When Cultural Engagement Matters for the Public Sphere. Bristol: Intellect, 17–41(2013) The participation paradigm in audience research. The Communication Review 16: 21–30(1992) Expert and lay participation in television debates: An analysis of audience discussion programmes. European Journal of Communication 7(1): 9–35and (1994] (2001) Talk on Television. Audience Participation and Public Debate. London/New York: Routledgeand [2008) Zero Comment. Blogging and Critical Internet Culture. New York/London: Routledge(2012) Networks Without a Cause: A Critique of Social Media. Cambridge: Polity Press(2012) Polymedia: Towards a new theory of digital media in interpersonal communication. International Journal of Cultural Studies 16(2): 169–187and (2014) Multiscreening and social TV: The changing landscape of TV consumption in Italy. Journal of European Television History & Culture 3(6): 24–36and (2012) Connecting Television. La Televisione al tempo di Internet [Connecting Television. Television in the Internet Age]. Milan: Guerini e Associati.and (eds) (2012) Twitter as Virtual Town Square: Citizen Engagement During a Nationally Televised Republican Primary Debate. American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, New Orleans. Available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2108682 [January 15, 2016]and (2013) Repertories of communication in social movement processes. In: , and (eds) Mediation and Protest Movements. Bristol: Intellect, 39–56(2009) Globalizing the logic of openness: Open source software and the global governance of intellectual property. In: and (eds) Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics. London: Routledge, 364–375(1999) ‘Mediatization’ of politics: A challenge for democracy? Political Communication 16(3): 247–261, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105846099198613and (2009) Politica Pop. Da Porta a Porta a L’isola dei famosi [Pop Politics. From Porta a Porta to The Island of Celebrities]. Bologna: ilMulinoand (2008) The Political Economy of Media. Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas. New York: Monthly Review Press(1976) Agenda-setting research: A bibliographic essay. Political Communication Review 26: 23–28(1972) The agenda-setting function of the mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly 36: 176–187and (2011) Theorizing activists ‘lay theories of media’: A case study of the dissent! network at the 2005 G8 summit. International Journal of Communication 5: 615–638(2012) Social movements, protest and mainstream media. Sociology Compass 6(3): 244–255(1999) Framing effects of television news coverage of social protest. Journal of Communication 49(3): 3–23and ([Page 125] (1964) Understanding Media. The Extensions of Man. Cambridge: MIT Press2005) Mass Communication Theory ((5thed.). London: Sage2012) Flash activism: How a bollywood film catalyzed civic justice toward a murder trial. In: and (eds) Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. Available at http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/345/271 [January 15, 2016](1980) The new social movements: A theoretical approach. Social Science Information 19: 199–226(1989) Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society (ed. and ). London: Hutchinson Radius(1996) Challenging Codes: Collective Action in the Information Age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(2016) Protest communication ecologies. Information, Communication & Society 19(3): 279–289, and (2013) Ampliare i confini della popolarizzazione. Uno studio della comunicazione delle organizzazioni no profit in Italia [Widening the boundaries of popularisation. A study of the communication of NGOs in Italy]. Comunicazione Politica 3: 361–372(2013) Talk&Tweet. La Campagna Elettorale 2013 tra Tv e Twitter [Talk&Tweet. The 2013 Electoral Campaign between TV and Twitter]. Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli Editore, and (eds) (2015) Mirroring horse races. Political commercials, pollsters and political consultants: The Americanization of Italian election campaigns. Comunicazione Politica 2: 195–212(1980) The ‘Nationwide’ Audience. London: British Film Institute(2014a) The five star movement: Exception or vanguard in Europe? The International Spectator: Italian Journal of International Affairs 49(1): 36–52(2014b) I movimenti sociali fra resistenza e adattamento allo show iperreale della democrazia italiana [Social movements between resistance and adaptation to the hyper-real show of the Italian democracy]. Comunicazione Politica 3: 531–552(2016) News diets, social media use and non-institutional participation in three communication ecologies: Comparing Germany, Italy and the UK. Information, Communication & Society 19(3): 325–345and (2000) The Democratic Paradox. London: Verso(2005) On the Political. London: Routledge(1999) Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge: MIT Pressand (1976) The Changing American Voter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, and (Nielsen (2013, November) Twitter UK consumer survey. Available at https://blog.twitter.com/en-gb/2014/80-of-uk-users-access-twitter-via-their-mobile [January 15, 2016]Nielsen (2014, February) The digital consumer. Available at http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/2014%20Reports/the-digital-consumer-report-feb-2014.pdf [January 15, 2016]Nielsen (2015a, March) Screen wars. The battle for eye space in a TV-everywhere world. Available at http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/2015-reports/nielsen-global-digital-landscape-report-march-2015.pdf [January 15, 2016][Page 126] Nielsen (2015b, November) Nielsen Insights: Utenti più attivi, broadcaster e advertiser più consapevoli dell’opportunità. Ecco perché la Social TV cresce a doppia cifra. Available at http://www.nielsen.com/it/it/insights/news/2015/Social-tv-sett-ott-2015.html [January 15, 2016]1974) The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication 24(2): 43–51(1993) The Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion – Our Social Skin ((2nded.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press2000) A Virtuous Circle. Political Communications in Postindustrial Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press(2012) Lo spot politico e i generi della popolarizzazione [Political spots and the genres of popularisation]. Comunicazione Politica 3: 481–508(2003) Globalization in movement(s): A review essay. Social Movement Studies 2(2): 229–243(2010, 20 April) TV debate: Initial Twitter analysis shows level of support for party leaders and winners by topic. New Political Communication Unit. Available at http://newpolcom.rhul.ac.uk/npcu-blog/2010/4/20/tv-debate-initial-twitter-analysis-shows-level-of-support-fo.html [January 15, 2016](2007) What is Web 2.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Communications & Strategies 65: 17–37(2008) Introduction: The challenges of ‘nano-media’. In: and (eds) Alternative Media and the Politics of Resistance: Perspectives and Challenges. Ljubjana: Peace Institute, 7–16and (2010) A Private Sphere: Democracy in a Digital Age. Cambridge: Polity Press(2015) Affective Publics. Sentiment, Technology, and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press(2012) Affective news and networked publics: The rhythms of news storytelling on #Egypt. Journal of Communication 62(2): 266–282and (1976) The Unseeing Eye: The Myth of Television Power in National Politics. New York: Putnamand (Pew Research Center (2012, December) Social networking popular across globe. Pew Global Attitudes Project. Available at http://www.pewglobal.org/files/2012/12/Pew-Global-Attitudes-Project-Technology-Report-FINAL-December-12-2012.pdf [January 15, 2016]2006) United yet autonomous: Indymedia and the struggle to sustain a radical democratic network. Media, Culture & Society 28(3): 315–336(1991) The Reasoning Voter. Communication and Persuasion in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press(1985) Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York: Penguin(1998, 28 March) Five things we need to know about technological change. Available at http://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~rogaway/classes/188/materials/postman.pdf [January 15, 2016](2014) The structural organization of NGO publicity work: Explaining divergent publicity strategies at humanitarian and human rights organizations. International Journal of Communication 8: 90–107(2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster([Page 127] (1984) Reading the Romance. Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill/London: The University of North Carolina Press2010) A new opportunity for democratic engagement: The CNN-YouTube presidential candidate debates. Journal of Information Technology & Politics 7(2–3): 202–215(1994) Elezioni e mass media. Quanti voti ha spostato la Tv [Elections and mass media. The votes reallocated by TV]. IlMulino 43(356): 1031–1046(1988) Agenda setting research: Where has it been, where is it going? In: (ed) Communication Yearbook 11. Newbury Park: Sage, 555–594and (2014) Adesso basta! La posta in gioco delle elezioni 2013 fra ciclo elettorale e protesta antipartitica [That’s enough! The issues at stake in the 2013 elections between the electoral cycle and anti-party protest]. Comunicazione Politica 1: 11–28(2009) The anarchists’ world cup: Respectable protest and media panics. Social Movement Studies 8: 35–53and (2004) The quadruple ‘A’: Media strategies of protest movements since the 1960s. In: , , and (eds) Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. London: Routledge, 29–56(2013) Protest movements and their media usages. In: , and (eds) Mediation and Protest Movements. Bristol: Intellect, 251–268(1998) Globalisation and Its Discontents. New York: The New Press(2013) La traversata di Grillo. Dall’informazione ai programmi d’infotainment: il pubblico a cinque stelle [Grillo’s crossing. From information to infotainment: The 5-star public]. Comunicazione Politica 1: 153–158and (1999) Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication 49(1): 103–122(1976) Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. London: Allen and Unwin(2013) Textual poachers, twenty years later: A conversation between Henry Jenkins and Suzanne Scott. In: (ed) Textual Poachers. Television Fans and Participatory Culture (updated 20th anniversary edition). New York/London: Routledge, vii–l(2000) From media politics to e-protest. Information, Communication & Society 3(2): 215–240and (2009) Tweet the debates: Understanding community annotation of uncollected sources. Proceedings of the First SIGMM Workshop on Social Media, 3–10. Available at http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1631148, and (1979) Agenda-setting and mass communication theory. Gazette (International Journal for Mass Communication Studies) 25(2): 96–105(1989) Culture, Inc. The Corporate Takeover of Public Expression. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press(2008) Here Comes Everybody. London: Penguin(1998) The Good Citizen. New York: The Free Press(2002) Complicity and collusion in the mediation of everyday life. New Literary History 33(4): 761–780(2014) The ‘outraged young’: Young Europeans, civic engagement and the new media in a time of crisis. Information, Communication & Society 17(2): 217–231(2012, 17 July) The rise of the ‘connected viewer’. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Available at www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media//Files/Reports/2012/PIP_Connected_Viewers.pdf [January 15, 2016]and ([Page 128] (2012) Fan action and political participation on The Colbert Report. In: and (eds) Transformative Works and Cultures, 10. Available at http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/rt/printerFriendly/316/283 [January 15, 2016]2001) Republic.com. Princeton: Princeton University Press(1999) About this issue. Political Communication 16(1): 1–2(1986) Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American Sociological Review 51(2): 273–286(2003) Ethnographic Action Research: A User’s Handbook. New Delhi: UNESCO. Available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00004399/ [January 15, 2016], and (2014) Journalism is twerking? How web analytics is changing the process of gate-keeping. New Media & Society 16(4): 559–575(2012 7 November) Election night hits record high: 20 million tweets. Mashable.com. Available at http://mashable.com/2012/11/06/election-night-twitter-record/#crfNVmdptPqY [January 15, 2016](2005) From hackers to hacktivists: Speedbumps on the global superhighway. New Media & Society 7(5): 625–646(2000) Free labor: Producing culture for the digital economy. Social Text 18(2): 33–58(1995) The Media and Modernity. A Social Theory of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press(2013) YouTube, Twitter and the occupy movement: Connecting content and circulation practices. Information, Communication & Society 16(3): 421–451, , , , , and (2014) C’eravamo tanto amati? La travagliata costruzione dell’identità del Movimento 5 Stelle nelle parole della base attiva sul blog beppegrillo.it [We All Loved Each Other So Much. The troubled construction of the 5-Star Movement’s identity in the words of the active base on the beppegrillo.it blog]. Comunicazione Politica 2: 263–286and (2015) Social Media, Subjectivity and Activism of the Purple Movement in Italy. Paper presented at the International Conference on Protest Participation in Variable Communication Ecologies, Alghero, 24–26 June(1968] (1971) The May Movement: Revolt and Reform. New York: Random House (1981) The Voice and the Eye: An Analysis of Social Movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press[2016) Media ecologies and protest movements: main perspectives and key lessons. Information, Communication & Society 19(3): 290–306and (2014) Two different debates? Investigating the relationship between a political debate on TV and simultaneous comments on Twitter. Social Science Computer Review 33(3): 259–276(2011, 26 October) The visual culture of the occupation: Month one and counting. Civic Paths. Available at http://civicpaths.uscannenberg.org/2011/10/the-visual-culture-of-the-occupation-month-one-and-counting/4/ [January 15, 2016]and (1973) Making news by doing work: Routinizing the unexpected. American Journal of Sociology 79: 110–131(2009) Television Studies after TV. Understanding Television in the Post-Broadcast Era. London: Routledgeand (eds) ([Page 129] Twitter (2012) The streaming APIs. Available at https://dev.twitter.com/docs/streaming-apis [January 15, 2016]2013) Digital Politics in Western Democracies: A Comparative Study. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press(2015) The features, impact and legacy of Berlusconi’s campaigning techniques, language and style. Modern Italy 20(1): 25–39(2015) Dual screening the political: Media events, social media, and citizen engagement. Journal of Communication 65(6): 1041–1061, and (2015) Follow the leader! Direct and indirected flows of political communication during the 2013 general election campaign. New Media & Society 17(7): 1025–1042and (2013) Social media and political communication: A survey of Twitter users during the 2013 Italian general election. Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica 43(3): 381–410, , , , , and (2002) New media, new movements? The role of the internet in shaping the ‘anti-globalization’ movement. Information, Communication & Society 5(4): 465–493and (2013) The Culture of Connectivity. A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press(2013) Understanding social media logic. Media and Communication 1(1): 2–14and (2004) Imagining the fan democracy. European Journal of Communication 19: 39–52(2005) Entertaining the Citizen: When Politics and Popular Culture Converge. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield(2015) The interpretative dimension of transformative events: Outrage management and collective action framing after the 2001 anti-G8 summit in Genoa. Social Movement Studies: Journal of Social, Cultural and Political Protest 14(5): 596–614(2011) It’s complicated: Facebook users’ political participation in the 2008 election. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 14(3): 107–114, , , , and (2014) Theories of the Information Society ((4thed.). London/New York: Routledge1999) Times of the Technoculture. From the Information Society to the Virtual Life. New York: Routledgeand (2011) After Broadcast News. Media Regimes, Democracy, and the New Information Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressand Delli (1961) Culture and Society. London: Fontana(1975) Television: Technology and Cultural Form. New York: Schocken(1980] (2005) Problems in Materialism and Culture: Selected Essays. London: Verso[2011) Tweeting about TV: Sharing television viewing experiences via social media message streams. First Monday 16(3). Available at http://firstmonday.org/article/view/3368/2779 [January 15, 2016]and (2010) Dynamic debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 30(5): 316–327and (2013) Two sides of the coin: Assessing the influence of social network site use during the 2012 U.S. presidential campaign. Social Science Computer Review 31(5): 542–551, and (